Tuesday, December 24, 2019

What Effect Does Alcohol Have on a Persons Health and...

Nicola Cooper Student No; cs329513 What effect does alcohol have on a persons health and life expectancy? The consumption of alcoholic beverages dates back to approximately 10,000 years ago when ‘viticulture (the selective cultivation of grape vines for making wine) is said to have originated in the mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas. (1) It is one of the most commonly used psychoactive drugs in the world. Alcohol interacts with gamma amino bultyric acid (GABA) receptors in the brain, this is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans and is synthesized from glutamic acid. (1a) Since then the production of alcohol has flourished and evolved becoming a huge part of todays society. However, in recent years much†¦show more content†¦In the mild stages of this disease there are little or no signs of illness, however when the condition becomes chronic, symptoms such as nausea and jaundice are seen, (jaundice is caused by a high level of bilirubin). The damage caused in the chronic stages can eventually turn into alcoholic cirrhosis. Alcoholic cirrhosis involves the replacement of normal liver tissue with scar tissue called fibrosis. This gradual process affects the normal structure and regrowth of liver cells and the liver gradually loses its ability to function well. Alcohol Metabolism Alcohol is detoxified and removed from the body to prevent alcohol accumulating and destroying cells and organs, through a process called oxidation. A small amount a alcohol escapes the body unchanged through breathing and urine. Once the alcohol enters the body it is distributed throughout affecting the brain and other tissues. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) after the rapid consumption of different amounts of alcohol by eight adult fasting male subjects. 100 mg% is the legal level of intoxication in most States. 50 mg% is the level at which deterioration of driving skills begins. (7) When alcohol is consumed, it passes from the stomach and intestines into the blood, a process referred to as absorption. Alcohol is then metabolized by enzymes, which are body chemicals that break down other chemicals. In the liver, an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenaseShow MoreRelatedHealthy Living Equals Longer Living1270 Words   |  6 Pagesbabies and progress to toddlers, children, teens, and finally adults. The very first day of our existence our body starts to age. As the body ages it starts to deteriorate. If a person does not take care of their body as they age, it shows that those are the main people that have the most complications later in life. All of these diseases would not be ruining peoples’ lives if they would take better care of themselves. 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Monday, December 16, 2019

Pepsi vs Coke Free Essays

ABSTRACT Soft drinks are playing the vital role in the market and the companies are also getting the good profits on these products. The soft drinks industry has originated in 1772. Now these drinks spread all over the world and the millions of bottles is consumed every day. We will write a custom essay sample on Pepsi vs Coke or any similar topic only for you Order Now Now this business is a global one and the companies are facing high competition in this business and they are changing their strategies according to the situations. Pearl Beverages Pvt. Ltd. Takes a great care to maintain quality control of products in their factory. The bottles are visually examined for impurities continuously, as the bottles move out. Samples are checked every ten minutes of production time by the chemist for its quality and hygienic condition. The chemical analysis is also flavours, gas contain and sugar percentage. The appearance, smell and taste of the production are suspended and the correcting measures are taken also as to sent right the bottling process. The main objective of the study is to find out the strength and weakness of the Pepsi in visakhapatnam zone when compared to the Coca-cola, that is mainly in the three places in Srikakulam district i. e. Srikakulam, Narasannapeta, and Amadalavalasa . Consulting almost all the outlets in these three areas, which are selling the soft drinks with a structured questionnaire, has done the study. The data has been collected and analyzed and interpreted by the help of the graphical representation technique. The analysis revels the various strengths and weaknesses of Pepsi in these areas along with the position of competitors. The most of the consumers preferred soft drinks because of better taste and to quench out their thrust. But now days, due to the changing food habits consumers have started adding the soft drinks in their food habits. The total sales of the soft drinks the Pepsi’s share is more but when compared with the Cock the number of outlets are less than Cock. Finally it can be concluded that the industry needs lot of channel management activities to do along with various promotional strategies for the customers. I wish the company got its objectives achieved CONTENTS Chapter NoTitle Page No 1. INTRODUCTION DESIGN OF THE STUDY 1. 1 About the Marketing topic 1. 2 Need of the Study 1. 3 Hypothesis 1. Objective of the Study 1. 5 Research Methodology 1. 6 Limitations of the Study 1. 7 Chapter Plan of the Study 2. ORGANIZATION PROFILE 2. 1 Genesis and Growth 2. 2 Organization Structure 2. 3 Production Function 2. 4 HR Function 2. 5 Finance Function 2. 6 Marketing Function 2. 7 Future Plans 3. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK 3. 1 Introduction 3. 2 Topic Coverage 3. 3 How it relates to Marketing Management 3. 4 Measuring Performance 4. DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION 5. SUMMARY SUGGESTIONS 5. 1 Summary 5. 2 Major findings 5. 3 Suggestions 5. 4 Implications for Owners / Managers 5. 5 conclusions 5. 6 Scope for the Future research 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY QUESTIONNAIRE 6. 1 Bibliography 6. 2 Questionnaire CHAPTER-1 Introduction Design of the Study 1. 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter various accepts of study are going to be discussed. To which area of management that study belongs to and various concepts that are related the area of study. The present outcomes under marketing and deals in the specific with the distribution network and its management. PEPSI COLA was in India from 1956-61 and left the country, as its products were not acceptable by the Indian customers. But recently in 1990 it re-entered the Indian market, where by PEPSI FOODS LIMITED was entered into a joint venture with PEPSI INTERNATIONAL, TATA and VOLTAS. PEPSI Bottlers and Producers of soft drinks buy concentrate and sell at fixed price and add a margin rationally for its products. 1. 2 NEED OF THE STUDY In modern days, market plays a vital role in rapidly changing industrial scenario. The marketing decline is under going reappraisal in the light of vast goals, technological, economic and social changes being faced by the today companies. The order to known the changes in the field of marketing it are necessary to conduct market survey. Study is conducted considering the following accepts: Firstly, visage is a representative of soft drink market which is highly promoting with a lot of potential which is at to be tapped. Secondly the behavior of the retailer is very much influenced by the additional benefits he is getting for selling the products having. Thirdly to understand the market condition of the soft drinks in the present scenario and the competition level in the market. Considered the key role of the retailer in present day market as an attempt was made to study the impact of company’s schemes of offering coolers to the retailers. 1. 3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY There is lot of scope for the further study in the project. Further study can be done in the following ways. ? We can make a study on Pepsi and Cock companies’ efficiency in their promotion activities. ? The same study can be conducted in other areas under bottling unit to generalize the finding for entire area under it. There is chance to know whether the Pepsi and Cock are doing the right thing regarding the sales promotion, product quality, discounts and advertising. ? A study on impact of visit coolers sales of Pepsi also be taken up. 1. 4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY In view of intensifying competition in soft drink market, it is imperative that a brand keeps a constant, which on them market and response properly and promptly to the dynamics of the market. It is in view of this fact has the present study has been taken up for â€Å"PEPSI†. ? To know and compare the merchandising of Pepsi and Cock in retail outlets. To know the promotional activities of sales promotion, advertising and public relations. ? To know the strategy of Pepsi and its competitors regarding the Marketing Mix. ? To know the problems of retailers regarding the trade schemes and consumer offers. ? To identify the retailers opinion towards Pepsi products. ? To know the problems of retailers and to offer the suggestion for improving in sales. 1. 5 METHODOLOGY Introduction: In this chapter, basically the methodology, by which the report has been prepared, is explained. The exact need for conducting the study and total design of framework of the report prepared is discussed. The limitations of the study are also discussed here. According to the survey beverages can be classified into two segments. The first segment can be done basing on the milk content, like milk based products like tea, coffee, flavoured milk, and health drinks (milk, malt and coco) and the second segment can be done on non-milk products such as soft drinks and mineral water. According to the survey conducted on the consumption of beverages, Tea comprises 90%, filtered coffee 4%, beverages 2%, instant coffee 2% and carbonated soft drinks just above 1% of total consumption. Soft drinks industry is a well known consumer product industry. It originated in the year 1772. In the USA first bottled soda was manufactured, by inventing a machine in 1809, the manufacturing of carbonated soft drink was recorded in the history of soft drink industry. Now a days soft drink industry is growing very extensively and millions of people are consuming soft drinks everyday. Age, income, and climate are not at all a barrier for the consuming soft drinks by the people. This is the reason for the tremendous growth in soft drink market. Data which is required for the analysis and fulfillment of our objectives has been collected from two sources. They are 1. Primary sources 2. Secondary sources PRIMARY DATA: Primary data is collected from the retailers through a structured questionnaire. It includes the first hand information from the outlets. It can view as a survey. The questionnaire was especially designed to find out the market share of the soft drinks and problems and weakness of Pepsi in that particular area. The chapter deals with main analysis part of the study and the dealer outlets covered in the study is ? Srikakulam ? Narasannapeta ? Amadalavalasa SECONDARY DATA Secondary sources include the information collected from the annual reports, published and unpublished records of the company . various books and journals and internet also being used for collecting the relevant data After gathering the data from those two sources the data was analyzed, tabulated and interpreted and finally suggestions were offered for the betterment of the company. DATA ANALYZING TOOLS: After gathering the data from the Primary and secondary sources the data was analyzed ,tabulated and interpretations were written down with the help of graphs and charts , with the help of Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word. . 6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The present study is subject to the following limitations: ? The sample size is not universal , some part of other cities remained uncovered ? Unavailability of some information due of lack of awareness of retailers ? Time and expenses were major constraints ? The study of the soft drink industry which is known to be seasonally fluctu ating on e percent study does not take into account seasonal fluctuations. The results may not suit for all the seasons ? Personal basis may be existing as the dealer of varied nature elicits the information Chapter-2 Company overview 2. INTRODUCTION In this chapter, an over of all the major accepts related to the study is discussed. The total industry profiles the soft drinks industry globally and in our country. The profile of the company with respect to its operation number of franchises, market share of the company and many other factors would be discussed here. 2. 2 INDUSTRY PROFILE Non alcoholic soft drink beverage market can be divided into fruit drink and soft drink. Soft drinks can be further divided into carbonated and non carbonated drinks. Colas, lemon and oranges are carbonated drinks while mango drinks come under non-carbonated drinks. Cola, lemon and oranges are carbonated drinks while mango dinks comes under non-carbonated category. The soft drinks market till early 1990’s was in hands of domestic players like Coke, Thumps Up, Limca etc. but with the opening up of economy and coming of MNC players Pepsi and Cock the market has totally under their control. Worldwide, Cock is the leader in carbonated drinks market. In India it is Pepsi, which scores over cock but this difference is fast decreasing. Pepsi entered Indian market in 1991. Cock re-entered (after they were thrown out in 1977, by then central government) in 1993. Pepsi has been targeting the youth and the sales have been doing well by sticking to this youth segment. Cock on the other hand struggled initially in establishing itself in the market. In a span of 7 years of its operations in the country it changed its CEO four times they seem to have started understanding the pulse of Indian consumers. Soft drinks are available in glass bottles, aluminum cans and PET bottles for home consumption. Fountains also dispense thin in disposable containers. SEGMENTATION: The soft drink market can be segmented on the basis of place of consumption and on the basis of type of products. The segmentation on the basis of place of consumption divides the market into three parts: 1. on-permise-80% of the consumption of soft drinks is on premise i. e. restaurants, railway stations, cinemas etc, 2. At-home the rest 20% of the market compromise of the soft drink purchased for consumption at home. The market can also be segmented on the basis of types of products into Cola products and non-cola products. 1. cola products account nearly 62% of the total soft drinks market. The brands that fall in this category are Pepsi, cola, Thumps Up, Diet Pepsi etc. 2. on-cola segment, which constitutes 36%, cam be divide into 4 categories based on the type of flavour available, namely ? Orange ? Cloudy lime ? Clear lime ? Mango I. Orange flavour based soft drinks constitutes around 17% of the market. The segment is largely dominated by national brands like Fanta of Coca-cola Co. and Mirinda Orange of Pepsi Co. rest of the market is in hands of smaller brands like Crush (earlier Cadbury Schweppes and now of Coca Cola), Gold Spot etc. II. Cloudy Lime flavour constitutes 14% of the market and is largely dominated by Limca of Coca Cola and Miranda Lemon of Pepsi Co. III. Clear Lime this segment of the market witnessed good growth initially with all; the players launching their brands in the segment. But now the growth in the segment has slowed down. The brands available in this segment are 7 Up , Mountain dew of Pepsi, Sprite of Coca-Cola and Canada Dry( earlier of Cadbury Schweppes and now of Coca Cola). The segment constitutes 3% of the total soft drinks market. IV. Mango flavour segment constitutes 2% of the total soft drinks market and it directly competes with mango based fruit drinks like Fruity. The leading brands in this segment are: Maaza of Coca Cola and Slice of Pepsi. There is very thin line of difference between the clear and cloudy lime. The most obvious feature is that clear lime has to be bottled in green bottles as sunlight harms the drink and changes the taste. There are some small local brands at city or regional levels. Most of these are either merging with two big players (Coca Cola and Pepsi) or they command a very small –less than 3% of the total market in their respective areas. Soft Drink Production Area: The market preference is highly regional based, while Cola drinks have main market in metro cities and northern states of U. P, Punjab, Haryana, etc†¦ Orange flavoured drinks are popular in southern states. Sodas too are sold largely in southern states besides the Bars. Western markets have preference towards mango-flavoured drinks. Growth Promotional Activities in Soft Drink Industry: The government has adopted liberalized for the soft drinks trade to give the industry a boost and promote the Indian brand internationally. Although the import and manufacture of international brands like Pepsi and Cock is enhanced in India the local brands being stabilized by advertisements, good quality and low cost. Buying Behavior in Soft Drink Industry: Soft drinks come under the category of products on impulse. This attitude of impulse buying is slowly changing to occasion-led buying and also to some extent consumption through home refrigeration particularly in urban areas. ? The market is slowly moving from non alcoholic carbonated drinks to fruit based drinks and also to plain bottled water due to lower price and ready availability. ? Consume rs purchase soft drinks primarily quench thirst therefore people traveling and not having access to hygienic water reach out for soft drink. This accounts for a large part of the sales. Brand awareness plays a crucial rule in purchase decisions. ? Availability in the chilled from also plays a crucial role in purchase decisions. This has made both the companies to push its sales and to increase its retail distribution by offering Visi cooler to retailers. ? Why there is no aversion to consumption of soft drinks buys any age group, the main consumer of this market are people in the age group of 30 and below. ? Product differentiation is very low, as all the products taste the same. But brand loyalty is high in the case of kids and people in the age group of 20-30 years. According to NCAER survey, lower, lower-middle, upper-middle class people do 91% of the total consumption of soft drinks in the country. Growth promotional activities in soft drink industry: The government has adopted liberalization for the soft drink trade to give industry a boost and promote the Indian Brand internationally. Although the import and manufacture of international brands like Pepsi and Coke is enhanced in India . The local brands are being stabilized by advertisements, good quality and low cost. Buying Behavior of soft drink industry: †¢ Soft drinks come under the category of products on impulse. This attitude of impulse buying is slowly changing to occasion-led buying and also to some extent consumption through home refrigeration particularly in urban areas. †¢ The market is slowly moving from alcoholic carbonated drinks to fruit based drinks and also plain bottled water due to lower price and ready availability. †¢ Consumers purchase soft drinks particularly to quench thirst and therefore on travel not having access to hygienic water reaches out for soft drinks. †¢ Brand awareness plays a vital role in purchase decisions. †¢ Availability in the chilled form also plays a crucial role in purchase decisions. This has made both the companies to push its sales and to increase its retail distribution by offering Visi coolers to retailers †¢ Why is there no aversion to consumption of soft drinks to any age group, the main consumers of this market are people in the age group of 30 and below. †¢ Product differentiation is very low, as all the products taste the same. But brand loyalty is high in the case of kids and people in the age group of 20-30 years †¢ According to NCAER survey, lower, lower-middle ands upper-middle class people do 91% of the total consumption of soft drinks in the country. Major Players in Soft drinks Industries The two global majors Pepsi and Coca Cola dominate the soft drink market in India. Coca Coal, which would up its operations during the introduction of the FERA regime, reentered India 16 years later in 1993. Coca Cola acquired a major chunk of soft drink market by buying out local brands Thumps up, Limca, Maaza and Gold spot from Pearl beverages, Coca Cola has also acquired Cadbury Schweppes soft drink brands Crush, Canada Dry and Sport Cola in early 1999 and now recently in Oct. 2008 . It acquires distribution rights of these brands from IFB Agro Ltd . Pepsi stated a couple of years before Coca Cola manufactures came up with their own market share figures and claimed to have increased their share. Shares Reports On Retailers In Soft Dink Industry: A Survey was conducted to study the retailer’s view of the present market, future trend and the consumer behavior patterns. The findings of the survey are as follows. †¢ Retailers started that the consumers are loyal to the particular segment of the soft drink i. e. Coca Cola, Orange or Lemon. But as for the loyalty for the brands in each segment is concerned, it is not very significant. 43% of the retailers surveyed told that in the soft drink industry advertising is the key component, it drives sales. While 32% stated promotional schemes and 20%brand loyalty as the reason. †¢ As consumers are not very brand loyal where the purchase of the soft drink purchase is concerned, the retailer purchase becomes a critical issue. They usually sell the product in which they get max imum benefit. For this, the companies try to offer them higher margins. While distributors get the margin of Rs 8-9 per crate (1 crate is equal to 24 bottles) at 3-4% of MRP, retailers are given margin of 10-12 % of MRP. The retailers are not happy with this, as the cost of refrigeration very high for soft drinks to overcome this problem the companies are offering Visi coolers schemes to their main retailers 2. 3 ORGANIZATION PROFILE PEPSI COMPANY MISSION STATEMENT: Pepsi Company’s over all missions is to increase the value of their share holder’s investment. they believe that their commercial success depends up on offering quality and value to their consumers and providing products that are safe, whole some and economically efficient and environmentally sound. Providing a fair return to their investors, while adhering to the highest standards of integrity. HISTORY OF PEPSI AND COCA COLA COMPANY: Pepsi Co Inc. was founded by Donald M. Kendall, President and chief executive officer of Pepsi –Cola and Herman W. Lay, Chairman Chief executive of FRITO-LAY through the merger of two companies in the year 1965. MAJOR PRODUCTS OF THE NEW COMPANIES ARE: †¢ Pepsi-Cola company Pepsi-Cola(formulate in 1898) †¢ Diet Pepsi(1964) †¢ Mountain Dew (introduced by T. P corporation 1984) †¢ Frito-Lay Inc brand chips Lays brand potato chips †¢ Cheetos brand chew flavoured snacks †¢ Ruffles brand potato chips Rold Gold brand pretzels Pepsi Company Inc. s among the most successful consumer products company in the world with: 1998 revenues of over $22 billion 1, 51,000 employees. Pepsi company’s brand names are among the best known most respected in the world . Some of the Pepsi Company’s brand names are 100 years old. FRITO-LAY Company is the world’s largest manufacturer and distributor of snack chip and Tropicana products Inc. is the world’s largest marketer and producer of branded juices. Pepsi Company’s success is the result of †¢ Superior Products. †¢ High Stands of Performances †¢ Distinctive Competitive strategies. †¢ High integrity of its work force PEPSI-COLA COMPANY: Calets Bradham, New Beru and Mc. Druggist who first formulated Pepsi coal founded Pepsi Company’s beverage business at the turn of the century. Brand Pepsi and other Pepsi-cola products including Diet Pepsi one, Mountain Dew, Slice and mug brands account for nearly 1/3 rd of the total soft drink in United States. Outside U. S Pepsi Cola Company’s soft operations include the business of 7up international. Pepsi-cola beverages are available in about 170 countries. Key Pepsi-cola international market includes Argentina, Brazil, china, India, Mexico, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Pepsi-cola provides advertising, marketing sales and promotion support to the Pepsi-cola bottles. New advertising and existing promotions keep Pepsi-cola young. The company manufacture and sales of the soft drinks are concentrated to the Pepsi-cola bottles. †¢ In 1996, Pepsi entered Japan and Eastern Europe. †¢ In 1967, PepsiCo. Stock splits two-for one. In 1986, North America van lines (NAVL), a premier transportation company Pepsi co, and renamed a strong contribution to the Pepsi unit it has divided in 1984. In 1969 in bold modern Pepsi cola packing which was using red, white and blue were introduced. FRITO-LAY introduced fungus brand onion flavoured snacks. In 1970 Pepsi introduces the industry’s first two litter bottles. Pepsi is the first company to respond to consumer preference with light weight, recyclable, plastic bottles. In 1971 Andral E. Pearson was appointed as president of PepsiCo, a position he held until his retirement in 1984. in 1972 don Kendall announced agreement making Pepsi cola the first foreign product sold in U. S. S. R. Pepsi co is given exclusive rights to import Stolichnaya Russian vodka in the U. S. In 1973 and 1974 Pepsi-cola became the first American consumer product to produce made and sold in former Soviet Union. In 1975 Pepsi Lite, with destructive lemon taste, is introduced as an alternative to traditional diet colas. In 1976 PepsiCo adopts code of worldwide business conduct. Pepsi-cola became the single largest selling soft drink brands sold in U. S super markets. In 1977 PepsiCo shares spilt up three for one. In 1987 and 1979 the opening of PepsiCo research and technological center in Vallah N. Y PepsiCo reached 85 billion marks in sales. Pepsi was formed to focus on the overseas development of restaurants. In 1981 PepsiCo fitness center was completed, making PepsiCo, one of the most advanced companies in the area of employee’s health and fitness. In 1982 Pepsi free and diet Pepsi free, the first major brands caffeine free colas were introduced. Inauguration of the first Pepsi cola operations in china: In 1983 The Bottler Hall of Fame was established to recognize the achievement and dedication of international bottlers. In 1984 diet Pepsi is reformulated with 100% neutral sweet, slice and diet slice. The first major soft drinks sirucsare added in Mexico. The cola were takes â€Å"one giant spilt for mankind† when a Pepsi â€Å"space can† is successfully tested a brand the span shuttle. 1986 Pepsi company board of directors visit the peoples public of china to make the opening the Pepsi second plant in china. In 1989, Pepsi Company introduce share power stock option program for all employees becoming the first large corporation tool award stock options through virtually all full time employees. In the 1900, Pepsi company was recognized as one of the most admired corporation by the fortune magazine’s top 10 for the two successive years. Pepsi signs the largest commercial trade agreement in history with the Soviet Union expecting sales in the USSR to double by the end of the century. Pepsi re-entered the Indian market in collaboration with Punjab Agro industries Corporation (PAIC). In 1991 Pepsi company named one of the fortune magazine’s top most admired corporations, for the third year in also. Pepsi co. purchased an equity position in the carts of Coloreds Inc. the leading manufacturer and marketer of mobile merchandising equipment. It was sold in 1955. 1993 Pepsi Cola began the distribution of Lipton’s line of ready to drinks teas nationwide. n 1996 Pepsi started its website WWW. Pepsi. com SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF PEPSICOLA COMPANY: As a consumer products company, Pepsi Company does not have the major environmental problems of heavy industry. Their biggest environment challenge is packaging generated by their products. Packaging is important to public and a critical component of the distribution sy stem is to deliver products to consumers and commercial establishment. To meet both consumer demand and safe guard the environment, they recycle, re-use and reduce packaging wherever possible. Each business is also committed to responsible use of resources required in manufacturing their products. LOGOS OF THE COMPANY [pic] 2. 4 ABOUT PEPSI INDIA COMPANY Franchise (pearl Bottling Pvt. Ltd. ,) Often new flavours are to be added to the product line of cool drinks to prevent a competitor. To establish a relation with retailers it is desirable to sell more than one flavor of cool drinks. To decrease the security seasonal products are added to the resources available so as to lessen its risks. Pepsi has given the franchise of Visakhapatnam region to Pearl Beverages which belongs to Pearl Group with Head quarters at Delhi and Mr. C. K. Jaipuria as the chairman and the Managing Director of the group. Pepsi Foods Ltd. , declared Krishna Mohan Beverages and Constructions as franchise, in 1992. Last year it was changed to Pearl Beverages was taken by the Pearl Group. Campa-cola Soft Drinks has originally owned the premises since 1980 at Madhurawada. After the insolvency of campa-cola, KMBC purchased the premises in1990 in the auction by APSFC. Initially, it used to produce Mc. Dowell’s soda and Bagpiper soda. It produced these drinks under franchise agreements but company could not exist in the market due to stiff competition from pearl products. Description and Launch of products |Brand name |Flavour |Date | |Pepsi |Cola |April-1992 | |Mirinda |Orange |April-1992 | |7 Up |Clear Lemon |April-1992 | |Mirinda Lime |Cloudy Lemon |April-1992 | |Soda |Soda |April-1992 | Pepsi |Pepsi Dite |7 Up |Mirinda(o) |Mirinda(L) |Slice |Evervess soda | |Coca-cola |Cock Dite |Sprite |Fanta |Limca |Maaza |Kinleys | Pepsi market share: Pepsi : 47% Coca-cola : 53% Pepsi foods (Pvt. ) Ltd. Pepsi cola was in India from 1956 to 1961. it left this country, as its products were not found acceptable to the Indian market. Pepsi foods Ltd. Joint venture between Pepsi Co. nternational of US(which is holding 40% of the equity)and Tata concerns Voltas and the Punjab Ago industries Corporation (each of which have as round 25% of the equity),has 25%of its output reserved for beverages with a 50% export commitment fo9r fruit and vegetable products. According to Pepsi officials the project guarantees that for every American dollar the company takes out of India , it will bring five back. They started concentrated factory in Punjab. This company named as Pepsi Foods Ltd. Pepsi Co. international’s direct investments in India so far amounts to Rs. 65 corer. Two thirds of this however has gone into food processing. Pepsi foods are exporting fruits and vegetables to UK etc. The Pepsi’s foods processing unit directly supervised 1,200 hectors under tomato cultivation covering 183 villages and 319 farmers. The company’s technical inputs enabled the farmer to achieve a yield of 35 to 50 tones a hector against the average of was after discontinuing teems. KMBC Pvt. Ltd. Has was the bottle for five districts Vizag, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, and East Godavari West Godavari. It receives the stock from Cuttack. PRODUCT PROFILE The Pepsi Co. is known for the development and introduction of world-class brands products. Their portfolio is organized into three core business, which consists of snacks, Beverages and Restaurants. Pepsi products are constantly changing themselves to develop new products. They encourage consumer to explore their wide range of brands. Main objectives: The objectives of the company set out in memorandum of association and franchise agreements are as follows: ? To manufacturing soft drinks by concentrating supplied by Pepsi Foods. ? To market and advertise within specified areas for Pepsi products. ? To sell soft drinks at fixed prices. financial structure: To start and operate business, any company has to invest its capital in fixed assets and floating assets and also in meeting the daily requirements of the company. However, depending on the nature of business and product being offered by the company, the ratio of investment of capital in fixed and floating assets differ. Working Capital: It means capital required for daily management of the company eg. Wages, salaries, canteen expenses and transportation expenses etc Plant layout: the machine and equipment have been imported from Germany, which are arranged in the plant according to the sequence of operation. All the operations are carried on a continuous movement. The reasons for choosing the product layout are: 1. There is continuous supply of material. 2. The brands are all standardized products. 3. The demand for the product brands is reasonable stable. 4. The volume of production is adequate for the reasonable utilization of equipment. Since the company follows continuous operation movement, the cost of material handling goes low. The total floor space required by the machine is less than other types of plant layouts. Plant Capacity: The company installed latest up to date automatic plant conforming to plant layout. The installed production capacity is 400 bottles per minutes i. e. 24,000 bottles per day. The plant also is having 100 bottles per 1-leter line. During off-season the plant runs one shift. The company has to produce enough bottles of soft drinks at a speed to keep in space with the disappearance of soft drinks form shelves of the retailer. Production Schedule: The production schedule is fixed by taking into consideration. ? The present or current market demand. ? The availability of empty bottles. ? The inventory position filled bottles of different flavors. The production schedule for each brand is fixed daily, filling the bottles of each branded flavors. This has an advantage in manufacturing the branded product is one at a time. Quality control Pearl Beverages Pvt. Ltd. takes great care to maintain the quality control of the products in their factory. The Bottles are visually examined for impurities continuously, as the bottles move out. Samples are checked every ten minutes of production time by the chemist for its quality and hygiene condition. The chemical analysis is also made for flavors, gas content and sugar percentages. The appearance, smell and taste of the products are also checked. If any defects are noticed, the production is suspended and the correcting measures are taken so as to set right the bottling process irregularities. Further, samples from each batch are dispatched to the affiliated parent agency company in each week for quality checkup. Moreover, agency of the company also lifts sample form the market at the random for quality checkup at any time to make sure that the quality is maintained to the exact standard of the parent company. At the end of the production schedule, daily all the equipment floor and wet patches are cleaned with bleaching powder or some other solution. The standards of hygiene maintained inside the production shops are commendable. Organization Structure and management: The word organization has two common meanings. The meaning signifies an institution or function as group and the second meaning refers to the process of organizing the way of work which is arranged and allocated among members often organization so that the goal of the organization can be achieved efficiently. The organizing involves balancing the companies. Needs both for stability on one hand and change on the other hand, an organization structure means adopting a change or it can be a source of resistance to change. There are mainly five elements of organization structure. ? Specialization of activities. Standardization of activities. ? Coordination of activities. ? Centralization and decentralization of deviation making. ? Size of the work unit. The M. D, Mr. Ruchirans Jaipuria is athe head of the organization and administration. The company is managed by able director, and is assisted by a team of well-qualified experience senior management personnel. LIST OF THE EMPLOYEES IN PE ARL BOTTELIGN COMPANY The following table shows the description of employees along with designation no. of employees: |S. No |Description |No. f employees | |1 |GENERAL MANAGER (FINANCE) |1 | |2 |COMMERCIAL MANAGER |1 | |3 |MARKETING DEVELOPMENT MANAGER |1 | |4 |VICE PRESIDENT |1 | |5 |TERRITORY DEVELOPMENT MANAGER |4 | |6 |ACCOUNTS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER |1 | |7 |TRAINING MANAGER |1 | |8 |ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER |1 | |9 |MARKET EQUIPMENT MANAGER |1 | |10 |PRODUCTION MANAGER |1 | |11 |ASST. PERSONAL MANAGER |1 | |12 |STORE EXECUTIVES |3 | |13 |CUSTOMER CENTRAL EXECUTIVE |25 | |14 |TERRITORY C0-ORDINATOR |1 | |15 |ROUTE AGENT |50 | |16 |SALES TRAINEE |1 | |17 |CHEMIST |3 |18 |ACCOUNTANTS |5 | |19 |SUPERVISOR |8 | |20 |CLERKS |8 | |21 |OPERATORS |10 | |22 |ELECTRICIANS |10 | |23 |FITTERS |3 | |24 |COMPUTER CUM TELEPHONE OPERATORS |12 | |25 |SECURITY OFFICER |1 | |26 |SECURITY GUARDS |6 | |27 |OFFICE BOYS |13 | |28 |SWEEPERS HELPERS |3 | CHAPTER-3 Theoretical Framework 3. 1 INTRODUCTION The main part of the report i. e. Analysis part is covered in this chapter. I did survey in 300 outlets in 3 various areas. After conducting the survey I interpreted the total collected information using a structured questionnaire. The required information is derived from that interpretation and analysis. This analysis part contains tables and pie charts. We can come to a conclusion from the final information from this chapter. Because of that reason this chapter is very important in the entire study of the project. Without this interpretation we can conclude the total survey and also can not understand the position of any company and the opinion of the customers regarding the company. 3. 2 DETAILS OF THE AREA SURVEY CONDUCTED Details of the survey conducted: The total data collected in three areas in Srikakulam district of total of 300 retail outlets. They are given below: |CLUSTER |SAMPLE SIZE |AREA | |Cluster-1 |130 |Srikakulam | |Cluster-2 |90 |Amadalavalasa | |Cluster-3 |80 |Narasannapeta | I started my survey first at Srikakulam on 4/02/09 and my study completed on 18/02/09 with Amadalavalasa. I personally went to every outlet and asked the total details of which are in the questionnaire and filled those things. Some of the retailers denied giving the details and I waited there with patience and collected all the data. In my survey I learned a lot and collected the useful information and also got good experience in the market field and came to know many things which are not in our books through this survey. I almost covered all the retail outlets which are situated in these areas and collected the correct information. 3. 3 INTERPRETATION OF THE SURVEY [TABLES AND GRAPHS] 1. Pepsi Cock Brands Available In Various Markets: |S. No |Market |Pepsi |Cock | |1. |Srikakulam |5 |6 | |2. |Amadalavalasa |5 |5 | |3. |Narasannapeta |5 |7 | [pic] Average Pepsi Cock brands Available in the market: Brands |No of Types | |Pepsi |5 | |Coca-Cola |6 | INTERPRETATION: In my survey of 300 retail outlets in 3 areas, I found 5 brands of Pepsi out of its 10 brands and 6 Brands of Coke is available out of its 10 Brands on average. So the brand availability of Coke is more when compared to Pepsi. Top brands Available in Srikakulam Market: |S. No |Brands |Percentage | |1. |Slice |46 | |2. |Mirinda |24 | |3. |Sprite |20 | |4. |Limca |10 | [pic] Top Four Brands Available In Amadalavalasa Market: |S. No |Brands |Percentage | |1 |Mirinda |46 | |2 |7 Up |24 | |3 |Sprite |17 | |4 |Thumps Up |13 | [pic] Top Four Brands Available In Narasannapeta Market: |S. No |Brands |Percentage | |1 |Mirinda |42 | |2 |Sprite |26 | |3 |7 Up |18 | |4 |Slice |14 | 2. No of Bottles Sold Per Day in Various Markets: | |Srikakulam |Amadalavalasa |Narasannapeta | |Pepsi |52 |45 |42 | |Coke |44 |35 |50 | pic] 3. No of Bottles sold per Day: |Brands |No of Types | |Pepsi |45 | |Coke |55 | INTERPRETATION: In my survey of 300 outlets in three areas I found Pepsi is occupying 55% and the Coke is occupying 44% in the total market in average. From this we can understand that the Pepsi sales are more when compared to Coke. 4. Service required to the retail outlets: |S. No |Market |Daily |Alternative Days |Weekly Twice | |1 |Srikakulam |63 |25 |12 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |49 |27 |24 | |3 |Narasannapeta |55 |36 |9 | Service Required in Average: Types of Services |Average Service Required from the Companies | |Daily |55 | |Alternative Days |30 | |Weekly Twice |15 | [pic] INTERPRETATION: In my observation of 300 outlets in three areas I found that 55% of the retailers want the daily service, 30% retailers want Alternative Days and the remaining 15% of the retailers want the service weekly twice. 5. Satisfaction of Pepsi Service |S. No |Market |Good |Satisfactory |Bad | |1 |Srikakulam |60 |40 |0 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |65 |30 |5 | |3 |Narasannapeta |70 |28 |2 | Satisfaction of Coke Service |S. N0 |Market |Good |Satisfaction |Bad | |1 |Srikakulam |45 |50 |5 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |40 |55 |5 | |3 |Narasannapeta |45 |50 |5 | Service Satisfaction of Pepsi and Coke in Average: |Brand |Good Satisfaction |Bad | |Pepsi |65 |33 |2 | |Coke |43 |52 |5 | INTERPRETATION: INTERPRETATION: In my survey of 300 outlets I found that 65% of the retailers expressed good in case of Pepsi and 43% incase of Coke. 33% in the case of Pepsi and 52% in case of Coke expressed satisfactory and finally remaining retailers expressed bad to the service of the companies. 6. Trade Schemes by Both Companies in Various Markets |S. No |Market |Pepsi |Coke | |1 |Srikakulam |41 |59 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |49 |51 | |3 |Narasannapeta |41 |59 | Trade Schemes by Both Companies in Average Brands |Trade Schemes | |Pepsi |44 | |Coke |56 | INTERPRETATION: By observing the above pie chart we can understand that 56% of the traders expressed their happiness towards the schemes of the Coca-Cola and the remaining 44% traders expressed their happiness towards Pepsi company in case of their trade schemes. 7. Consumer Promotions offered by both Companies |S. No |Market |Pepsi |Coke | |1 |Srikakulam |61 |39 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |57 |43 | |3 |Narasannapeta |60 |40 | Consumer Promotions offered in Average Brand |Consumer Promotion | |Pepsi |59 | |Coke |41 | INTERPRETATION: In providing consumer promotion by way of giving the prizes to the consumers and other ways to promote the sales, Pepsi was able to attracted 59% of the retailers with its promotional schemes. In case of Coke it attracted the remaining 41% of the retailers by their consumer promotional schemes and activities. 8. Is T. V Adds help to increase the sale of Soft Drinks |S. No |Market |Yes |No | |1 |Srikakulam |74 |26 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |51 |49 | |3 |Narasannapeta |60 |40 | Amount of people saying T. V ads help increase in Sale, in Average | |T. V Add helps the increase in sales | |Yes |62 | |N0 |38 | INTERPRETATION: The above chart shows the opinions of the retailers that weather T. V ads will help to increase the sale of the soft drinks. In this 62% of the retailers expressed positively and the remaining 38% retailers expressed negatively to this question. 9. Comparison of 2007-2008 sales S. No |Market |Good |Less |Same | |1 |Srikakulam |55 |40 |5 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |30 |63 |7 | |3 |Narasannapeta |40 |48 |12 | Comparison of 2007-2008 sales in average Opinion |Good |Less |Same | |No of outlets in average |42 |50 |8 | INTERPRETATION: In the above chart the opinions of the retailers were given. From that 42% of the retailers expressed the view of good increase in the sale by2008 when compared to 2007. 50%of the retailers expressed the view of less increase in the sale and the remaining 8% of the retailers expressed the view of the same sales and there is no increase in the sales. 10. The Percentage Of Juice Based Soft Dri nks In Total Sales |S. No |Market Area |30% |20% |10% | |1 |Srikakulam |30 |33 |37 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |29 |34 |37 | |3 |Narasannapeta |34 |32 |34 | Juice Based Soft Drinks In Average | |30% |20% |10% | |Result |31 |33 |36 | INTERPRETATION: By observing the above chart we can understand that the demand for the juice based soft drinks is increasing rapidly. For that the companies better to concentrate on the juice based soft drinks introducing and their sales. 11. Pepsi Visi coolers and other coolers available in the Market |S. No |Market |Pepsi cooler |Cock+ other coolers | |1 |Srikakulam |32 |68 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |21 |79 | |3 |Narasannapeta |31 |69 | Pepsi Coke Visi Coolers Available in Average | |Pepsi Visi Coolers |Cock Visi cooler+ Own cooler | |Average of Outlets |28 |72 | INTERPRETATION: In the areas where I did my survey I found 28% of the retailers are using the Pepsi Visi Coolers and the remaining 72% of the retailers are using the Coke and Other coolers. From this we can suggest that Pepsi have to increase their Visi Coolers supply. 12. Why retailers keep other products in Pepsi Visi Coolers |S. No |Market Area |Electricity Bill |No Own Cooler | |1 |Srikakulam |35 |65 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |58 |42 | |3 |Narasannapeta |56 |44 | Why other products in Pepsi Visi Coolers in Average |S. No |Electricity Bill |No own cooler | |1 |49 |51 | INTERPRETATION: When I did the survey I observed that many of the retailers are keeping the other products in Pepsi Visi Coolers and they gave some sort of explanation for that. In those reasons 49% of the retailers said Electricity bill is the problem and the remaining 51% of the retailers said that they don’t have their own coolers. They should be restricted. 13. Most Soft Drinks Consuming Category In Various Markets |S. no |Market |Male |Female |All People |Youth | |1 |Srikakulam |18 |10 |59 |13 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |12 |11 |56 |21 | |3 |Narasannapeta |19 |18 |39 |24 | Most Soft Drinks Consuming Category In Average Opinion |Male |Female |All People |Youth | |Avg % of outlets |16 |13 |51 |20 | INTERPRETATION: In the above pie chart the consumption of soft drinks mostly by four categories. 51% of the total consumption is by All People, 20% by the Youth, 15% by the Male and the remaining 13% is consumed by the Female. We can say that the consumption of soft drinks by the youth is increasing. 14. Soft Dinks Supply To The Retail Outlets [Cash Or Credit] |S. No |Market |Pepsi Cash |Pepsi Credit |Coke Cash |Coke Credit | |1 |Srikakulam |100 |0 |100 |0 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |100 |0 |100 |0 | |3 |Narasannapeta |100 |0 |100 |0 | INTERPRETATION: From the above pie cart we can understand that both the Pepsi and Coke companies are not providing any credit to the retailers. All the retailers are purchasing the soft drinks on cash only. 15. Consumption of Soft Drinks at Home and at Shop |S. No |Market |At Shop |At Home | |1 |Srikakulam 80 |20 | |2 |Amadalavalasa |70 |30 | |3 |Narasannapeta |75 |25 | Consumption of Soft Drinks at Home at Shop In Avg. |S. No |At Shop |At Home | |1 |75 |25 | INTERPRETATION: From the above pie chart we can understand that in the areas I did the survey 75% of the Soft Drinks are consumed at the Shops and the remaining 25% of the Soft Drinks are consumed at Home. Chapter-4 SUMMARY, FINDINGS SUGGESTIONS 4. 1 INTRODUCTION The chapter contains Findings, Suggestions and Conclusions. Basing on the results of the survey Suggestions are given to improve the potentials and the market share of the company in the soft drinks field. The total findings are prepared by the survey information collected in the various places in Srikakulam district. I did the comparative study between the top two brands in the field of soft drinks sector those are Pepsi and Coke. The information is base on the two brand comparison and in my view these are useful to the company to improve its performance and can get good sales as well as good market share in the field of Soft Drinks. These are all my sincere findings and suggestions to the company. FINDINGS 1) The company is maintaining the quality of the products and it has good quality control Dept. 2) Now a day because of changing the food habits the soft drinks are added to their food habits. 3) Pepsi soft drinks are occupying more than half of the soft drinks market. 4) The demand for the fruit based soft drinks is go on increasing and they occupied the top selling drinks position. ) Sales promotion activities taken by the Pepsi Company is good as per the retailer’s opinion when compared to coke. 6) The Pepsi Company’s supply of drinks is good but they are not providing the sufficient drinks to the outlets. 7) The No. of Visi coolers in the market is less when compared to the Coke Company. 8 ) Some of the retailers are placing the other products also in the company c How to cite Pepsi vs Coke, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Ethics and Social Issues Market Scenario

Question: Discuss about the Ethics and Social Issues for Market Scenario. Answer: Introduction In todays market scenario, IT related organizations aim towards embracing strong ethical principles, rules and regulations at the workplace. According to Badaracco (2013), it is important to an individual or team or organization to operate morally and consider taking ethical decisions. Ethics is a set of ideology and values that govern an organization in conducting its business in adherence to its productivity, reputation, and structural bottom line. It, therefore, expresses values and morals of an organization to both its internal and external stakeholders. Due to in-depth computer knowledge, it may be easy for an IT manager or professional in accessing an organizations data and information. But, it will be ethical if the IT professionals dont misuse their knowledge of accessing organizational data and sharing it with some other organizations or competitors. It will enhance the reputation of the organization along with the IT professionals (Armstrong et al. 2013). This report will be dealing with ethical issues of Sony Australias stakeholders and reasons behind choosing ethical aspects over legal ones in solving these ethical issues. Moreover, it also discusses the ethical obligations that stakeholders need to have towards one another and general civilians along with guidance provided by Australian Computer Society in solving Sony Australias ethical issue. Ethical Issues of the Stakeholders Stakeholders are the people or groups of people those provide an organization with prolific resources and also do have a claim on their shared resources. As opined by Clegg et al. (2015), managers of an organization should behave ethically and shouldnt risk any of the investors capital in illegal actions where it may hurt an organizations reputation. It is because these managers are responsible for utilizing both financial capital as well as human resources of an organization. So, they have a direct admittance and admission to the organizations personal information such as financial strength, IT codes, passwords and access rights. Carroll and Buchholtz (2014) mentioned that employees also should be ethical in their approach to their behavior and attitude creates the structure and culture at the workplace. They should behave ethically to maintain a healthy and safety environment within organizations. Moreover, as stated by Hill et al. (2014), suppliers as well as distributors of an organization should be ethical in their approach. The organization should pay all its managers, suppliers and employees fairly and timely. Even the customers should be provided with good quality products at competitive prices; that is they should be provided value for products and services. It is also necessary for an organization to behave ethically while storing the personal information of customers. It not only improves the reliability of customers but also their reputation is elevated. Fiolleau and Kaplan (2016) opined that suppliers at the same time should also be ethical in their approach by proving the organization with premium quality raw materials at the agreed-upon price. Privacy of the stakeholders personal information should be maintained at every step of operation within and outside the organization. In Australia, Sony Entertainments account was somehow hacked by the 3rd party intruders. Whenever the customers create an account in the Network Platform, Sony Australia doesnt have access to it (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2015). The whole customer database is stored in the data center of California. But, after the customers relied on Sony Australia and created accounts, they had to provide their personal details to access it. But, a group named GOP (The Guardians of Peace) unethically broken into the security code and accessed the information of customers. It, therefore, could have resulted in numerous compromising of Australian customers debit and credit cards. The Australian Piracy Commission immediately took the entire matter under investigation and saved a lot of customers from getting bluffed and deceit by those impostors and intruders. Later it was even proved that Sony Australia didnt breach the Piracy Ac as they didnt have any personal information of the customers (Estvez et al. 2015). Reason behind Resolving Ethical Issues of Sony Australia via Ethical Aspects Rather Than Legal Ones When an organization faces an unethical situation, the top authorizes, and managers fall in a dilemma whether to solve the problems ethically or legally. According to Clegg et al. (2015), there are certain situations that need to solve ethically rather than legally as it may threaten the basic or fundamental principles. One of the threats may arise due to self-interest, where the scam of top officials or authorities may affect the organizational image and reputation. It may affect the customers behavior towards the organization and may turn them judgmental towards the ethical and moral principles of the business. Smither et al. (2016) also stated that another threat that may arise is due to advocacy, where the threat will be promoting the position of an organizations clients to compromise the business objectives. It will result in a competing disaster of the organizations reputation, and status and hence organizations prefer to solve certain problems ethically rather than legally at the workplace. Moreover, Martin (2015) also mentioned that familiarly is another reason behind organizations choosing ethical way of solving problems over legal ways. Due to having a close relationship with any of the internal stakeholders, organizations tend to solve the problems ethically through warnings, discussions, and suggestions. These are not taken as it may hamper the relationship or may dishevel to the organizations image in this competitive marketplace. As stated by Badaracco (2013), these dilemmas can also occur due to intimidation, where the stakeholder has a threat from other stakeholders in maintaining silence. Hence, under any of such pressures, the stakeholder is bound to keep quiet and only perceives the unethical happenings at the workplace. So, to solve any of such ethical dilemma problems, any of the internal stakeholders can seek an independent legal advice from any professional body. As opined by Markman et al. (2016), the stakeholders for solving problems ethically need to gather relevant facts and information regarding the cause and raise of the problems. The affected areas also need to be identified and also should involve the ethical issues regarding the cause. The fundamental principles those are affected due to this unethical behavior are integrity, confidentiality, honesty, professional behave and objectivity. To take any ethical actions, the stakeholders need o be well-equipped with the rules, regulations, and principles laid down by the organization (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2015). Ethical Obligations That Stakeholders Have Towards One Another and General Population Stakeholders should have ethical obligations towards one another as well as for the society. As commented by Reinecke and Ansari (2015), managers of an organization bring into behavioral and personality traits in the work. Based on the value system of a manager, the employees personal needs, religious background, and family influence are shaped. The personality traits like self-confidence, ego, mutual trust and respect are largely affected by the managers' way of handling things ethically at the workplace. Whenever the organization considers social and ethical elements in the business operation, it makes sure to integrate both philosophy and morals within it. As opined by Stazyk and Davis (2015), the organizations objectives should be socially responsible and should either meet or exceed the stakeholders expectations. It will help in growing a sense of reliability and trusts on one another that will improve an organization's social status, position, and reputation. As commented by Smither et al. (2016), research has shown that customers identify organizations those overlaps between individual attributes and organizational attributes. There may be certain potential conflicts between other stakeholders and customer stakeholders regarding economic development or valuing money. It may be due to the presence of certain customers those have a self-centered approach. These customers look out for best quality products and services at a comparatively low price. Moreover, the employees and workers of organizations should have an honest communication with the customers. False and lucrative ads should not be given to attract customers. Moreover, van Gils et al. (2015) mentioned that customer groups are in general too much concerned about child labor and unethical practices within the organization. They tend to boycott certain organizations those have a bad reputation in advocating child labor or are ill-treating its employees or are increasing environmenta l pollution. It is seen that the development of organizations ethics and principles have leveraged organizational relationships will be all its stakeholders. As stated by Weiss (2014), ethical programs should be held that helps in balancing orientation of internal and external stakeholders for aligning the requirements and demands of all the stakeholders. Moreover, distribution of information throughout an organization also facilitates ethical behavior and responsiveness of the business. The balancing between the stakeholders helps in increased performance of an organization (Zadek et al. 2013). Guidance of Australian Computer Society's (ACS), Code of Ethics, Provides To Sony Australia The ACS offers legal recognition of ICT as it embraces global ICT professionals like lawyers, accountants, and engineers. As commented by Luo (2016), it, being a Disciplinary Committee has adopted a consistent Model Code that is fair, accessible as well as accountable. ACS has also adopted a discipline and complaint system that offers a fair resolution of the disputes, thereby, maintaining the integrity of the consumers. When GOP invaded Sony Australia's customer database by GOP, the ACS brought into action its Code of Professional Conduct and Code of Ethics to resolve this con. Every organizations and professional are bound to follow and adhere to the set rules, regulation and principles laid down by ACS. According to Johnston and Marshall (2016), ACS has also passed the law that the customers have every right to ask the IT professionals and repair merchant those providing them with services whether they are members of the professional organization. The members of ACS are bound to a dhere to the rules and regulations set by it for their members. Moreover, Kaptein (2015) stated that Australia being a free and democratic country have freedom of speech, association; enjoy equality, opportunity, and peacefulness. At the same time, the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) also should maintain its principle of making ACS members adhering to the codes of conduct. It helps in resetting and restoring moral philosophy among customers as well as monitors the professionals over their conduct. As mentioned by Martin (2015), in Sony Australia case, along with ICT, the ACS investigated whether it is the fault of Australian Network site or other country. With the technological development, the ACS is also getting stronger and observant towards the IT professionals activities. It has informed that the IT professionals are bound to act honestly and also should have integrity as well as respect for the members. Markman et al. (2016) also commented that as per ACS, the IT professionals and members of this reputed organization should include public interest as one of the primary factors to be taken care of. The members should have respect to the intellectual properties of others and also should preserve both privacy and confidentially of others information. The principles that ACS members should embrace are honesty, competence, professional development and professionalism in their activities. The members of ACS should also aim towards protecting as well as promoting the safety and health issues of the people those taking services from ACS members (Matten, 2015). Conclusion This entire report deals with Sony Australias incident where an invader group named GOP broke its path into the network system of Sony Entertainment. It is seen that with the rise of IT using cloud technology, innovative ways of hacking are coming into existence along with ethical and lawful ways of handling these matters. The report discusses several ethical issues from the stakeholders viewpoints. It shows that every internal and external stakeholder of an organization should have values and moral in contributing their services to the organizations productivity and success. It is also seen that there are certain issues that should be resolved ethically rather than legally to them a chance of improvement. It also saves the reputation of the organization or stakeholders. It is also explained that ACS have individual codes of conduct and ethics, and its members should adhere to it. ACS social values comprise of honesty, professional development, competence, professionalism, enhancing quality life and serving of public interest. References Armstrong, R.W., Stening, B.W., Ryans, J.K., Marks, L. and Mayo, M., 2013. International marketing ethics: problems encountered by Australian firms.Asia Pacific International Journal of Marketing. Badaracco Jr, J., 2013.Defining moments: When managers must choose between right and right. Harvard Business Press. Carroll, A.B. and Buchholtz, A.K., 2014.Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Nelson Education. Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M. and Pitsis, T., 2015.Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Sage. Estvez, R.A., Anderson, C.B., Pizarro, J.C. and Burgman, M.A., 2015. Clarifying values, risk perceptions, and attitudes to resolve or avoid social conflicts in invasive species management.Conservation Biology,29(1), pp.19-30. Ferrell, O.C. and Fraedrich, J., 2015.Business ethics: Ethical decision making cases. Nelson Education. Fiolleau, K. and Kaplan, S.E., 2016. Recognizing ethical issues: An examination of practicing industry accountants and accounting students.Journal of Business Ethics, pp.1-18. Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014.Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Johnston, M.W. and Marshall, G.W., 2016.Sales force management: Leadership, innovation, technology. Routledge. Kaptein, M., 2015. The effectiveness of ethics programs: The role of scope, composition, and sequence.Journal of Business Ethics,132(2), pp.415-431. Luo, L., 2016. For Your Enrichment: Ethical Issues in Reference: An In-Depth View from the Librarians Perspective.Reference User Services Quarterly,55(3), pp.188-198. Markman, G.D., Russo, M., Lumpkin, G.T., Jennings, P. and Mair, J., 2016. Entrepreneurship as a Platform for Pursuing Multiple Goals: A Special Issue on Sustainability, Ethics, and Entrepreneurship.Journal of Management Studies,53(5), pp.673-694. Martin, K.E., 2015. Ethical issues in the Big Data industry.MIS Quarterly Executive,14, p.2. Matten, D., 2015.Business Ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization. Oxford University Press. Reinecke, J. and Ansari, S., 2015. What is a fair price? Ethics as sensemaking.Organization Science,26(3), pp.867-888. Smither, R., Houston, J. and McIntire, S., 2016.Organization development: Strategies for changing environments. Routledge. Stazyk, E.C. and Davis, R.S., 2015. Taking the High Road: Does Public Service Motivation Alter Ethical Decision Making Processes?.Public Administration,93(3), pp.627-645. van Gils, S., Van Quaquebeke, N., van Knippenberg, D., van Dijke, M. and De Cremer, D., 2015. Ethical leadership and follower organizational deviance: The moderating role of follower moral attentiveness.The Leadership Quarterly,26(2), pp.190-203. Weiss, J.W., 2014.Business ethics: A stakeholder and issues management approach. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Zadek, S., Evans, R. and Pruzan, P., 2013.Building corporate accountability: Emerging practice in social and ethical accounting and auditing. Routledge.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Phenomenological and Social Psychoanalytic Approaches free essay sample

That the simple word l is always in the top twenty most common words used in the English languages Is no coincidence-?we are central to our framework of the world, ND therefore our self Is of great Importance to everything we do and think. Whether self is a set of attitudes, roles or characteristics and how much of those stem from our own individuality and how much from how we fit into society, is key to understanding the impact and influence that our self-images have on our lives. If you were asked to define your self, how would you do it?Would you say, l am a mother, I am a daughter, I am a doctor, using your roles In smaller and larger societies to define yourself? Or would you choose Instead to define yourself by the individual characteristics that serve to set you apart from your group and the world en masses-?l am funny, I am kind, I am shy? As central as the question of self may be, there is surprisingly little empirical research in social psychology on how we define ourselves . We will write a custom essay sample on Phenomenological and Social Psychoanalytic Approaches or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the main, this can be attributed to the inability to agree on whether self Is a set of attitudes or if it is otherwise constructed. Kuhn and McFarland (McFarland, 1954), however, did attempt to develop an experiment that would begin to clarify some of these questions. They asked 288 undergraduate students to answer who am l? Twenty different ways, in a short amount of time. As sociologists, they looked at their results from a different perspective than social psychologists, but it is still of interest to see how the students responded in ways that held up the idea of an individual-society dichotomy.Invariably, their responses showcased either the role they filled (student, son, friend) or how they saw themselves as Individuals (smart, gentle, tall) While our binary constructs can help to clarify and simplify a question, it can also serve to make formulating a real-world answer more difficult. Just as the self cannot e defined strictly in terms of its conscious formulations while discounting its unconscious, so too is it impossible to truly understand the self when using the foundation of the Individual-society du alism.This paper will examine how two social psychological perspectives-? phenomenological and social psychoanalytical-?have worked to define the self and how well they have managed to step away from the black and white dualism of individual-society, that has been historically prevalent, and develop a more cohesive, integrated model of the self. When looking at the history of how a topic has been understood, it is always important to remember that knowledge is not a static formulation. Rather, it is a dynamic product that is always at the mercy of the historical framework in which it finds itself. (Holloway, 2007) The understanding of any subject comes down to the time period, the culture, and the social location present for that subjects. Consider, for example, how the study of the self was far less popular in psychology in the United States in the mid-twentieth century than it is now, or indeed, as it was in other fields such as philosophy or sociology. It is necessary to remember that during this time period, psychology in the U. S. As very much concerned with separating itself from the philosophical disciplines and becoming more aligned with the sciences-? the study of the self can be seen to underscore the nebulous nature of the field, which was against the goals of that time and placed. In Britain in 1694, society was in the midst of the ramifications of a society moving away from agriculture and towards industry-?creating the fear of social ties being broken and of kinship no longer being the sole consideration for what makes a person-?when John Locke began to discuss personal identity in a way that saw it as a natural, observable phenomenon 4. This was a departure from when the basic understanding of self saw it both as a reflection of the immortal soul and of familial descent. What we take for granted-?that the self is not merely a collection of outer actions, but is also made up of a self-consciousness-?was then considered to be exceedingly modern and revolutionary. The idea of defining self based on familial descent is an interesting one, as it serves to underscore the importance of situated knowledge in this topic.Whereas in the Western world academics have moved increasingly towards the individualistic of he self, it is important to remember that in many third-world cultures defining the self is still very much a matter of defining the kinship ties a person has and their relatedness to the rest of the worlds. Does this mean that the self is a different entity depending on where you live? Is a person less of a separate being in Kenya than they are in Britain?This is at the root of why any definition that relies solely on a binary definition of self-?especially of individual-society dualism-will always be lacking. While this paper is primarily concerned with the issue of individual-society dualism, peeping in mind the other binary concepts that have had an impact on the definition of self-?integrated vs.. Fragmented, conscious vs.. Unconscious, true vs.. False-?can help to reinforce the idea that attempting to follow a strict dichotomy undermines the ability to achieve a realistic, usable definition of the self.The social psychoanalytic perspective and the self Social psychoanalysis is one of the best perspectives in merging dualistic thinking into a more cohesive whole. This is the perspective that best strives to see how the unconscious impacts the conscious and vice versa and how the fragmented forms motional experiences. The best strength of social psychoanalysis is that it is able to delve into the hidden depths of meaning in a persons experiences and relationships.If the best way to combat the individual-society strict dualism is to understand the interplay between the two, then social psychoanalysis is well-placed to find that interaction. Psychoanalysis is able to look at an individuals setting and relationships and delve deeper into the emotional interplay that has such an impact on that persons definition of self. This allows the focus to be on the dynamic experience of an individual who is always a sum total of their relationships and settings, and cannot be broken down to individual parts outside of those connections.Consider, for example, a sibling relationship. Siblings and placement in ones family is fundamental in how a person defines themselves by role-?I am an older brother, I am a protector, I am an only child-?and in the dynamics of how those relationships establish their own moral a nd cultural codes for that person, which is inherent in their unconscious motivations. Here then, is a clear interplay between the hidden ND the visible in defining the self, which the social psychoanalytic perspective is best poised to understand. The phenomenological perspective and the self The strong ties between phenomenology and philosophy lend both the greatest strengths for phenomenological perspectives to explain a cohesive definition of self, but also the greatest weakness in forming a definition of self that is applicable in the practical world: Because phenomenology is considered to be fundamentally irrelevant in any scientific explanation of the mind, the person-level is regarded as scientifically invisible: it is a ghost-like housing for sub-personal computational cognition.The problem of explaining how the sub-personal and sub-phenomenological machinery of mind is related to person-level experience is as troublesome for cognitive psychology as the problem Descartes faced in explaining how the ghost (the non- corporeal mind) is related to the machine (the material body)8. On the surface, phenomenology stands out as being one of the best perspectives to take on when attempting to view the definition of self away f rom the harsh dichotomy of individual-society.As phenomenology looks at how a person experiences the world hey inhabit, without the brackets of prior assumptions and understandings, it is well-situated to examine the essence of the self as it exists, rather than within the constraints of defining where that meaning comes from. This perspective retains its close links with its philosophical roots, and is therefore less bound by the attempts of scientific methodology to reduce definitions down to measurable parts. In phenomenology, a person does not need to be separated from the parts of their in whatever shape it takes in that particular moment.This is best understood through the core concept of lifework, wherein each person is seen as being inseparable from the setting of that persons life and their experience within that setting. This emphasis on a persons experiences, shared with others found in their situated settings, helps phenomenology to go beyond the individual-society dualism concept and instead formulate an idea of self as a fully in-the-moment combination of meaning. Concluding thoughts Both phenomenological and social psychoanalytical perspectives do much to move away from the individual-society dualism, though their methods in doing so are markedly different.Both methods look to go beyond simply what the person says is heir idea of self-?social psychoanalysis by looking for the hidden emotional meaning and connection of the words and phenomenology by looking below the surface for the meaning behind the experience. Both perspectives-?perhaps most importantly-? allow for an understanding of the self that is dynamically changing and developing as the individual has experiences and formulates meaning out of those experiences. This is the greatest combination of individual and society, where a person is both their existence in society, but also how they formulate the meaning of that existence.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Virgil at Odds essays

Virgil at Odds essays While on the surface the Aeneid could be seen as a Roman epic meant to glorify Rome and rival those of the ancient Greeks, the author was engaged in a struggle. Virgil had to satisfy the cultural demands of his work, the political demands of his time, and his own personal demands as an artist. In tackling his problem, Virgil is revealed to be slightly reluctant of embracing fully the still young regime of Octavian but still proud of Rome and his ancestry, and concerned with the moral issues of civil war. When considering the style with which Virgil composed the Aeneid, it is important to look at the time in which he lived and exactly what was going on around him when it was written. Virgil was born in 70 BC and died in 19 BC. This places him in the very beginning of what was to be a long and relatively stable existence of the Roman Empire. Further, it was during the poet's lifetime that Rome made citizens of all Italians, allowing a huge community to share in Rome's growing heritage. People who formerly may have felt like outcasts under the oppression of Rome could now call Rome their own. This included Virgil because he came from a provincial Italian town far outside Rome. W.A. Camps cites that while Virgil was still a young man, his family's estates were confiscated by Caesar to be given to veterans of the battle of Philippi (1). Caesar was eventually assassinated and the next twenty years of the poet's life are shaded by bloody struggles for power among heirs and military leaders. Eventually Caesar's adopted son Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Cleopatra's forces and brings all Rome under his rule, in about 30 BC. This is important because Virgil had been fond of Octavian, although it is not known if he publicly supported anyone during the conflict. It is known that Virgil came to enjoy first the friendship then the patronage of Octavian and his minister Maecenas, both of whom bestowed a small fortune upon him (...

Friday, November 22, 2019

The 5 Tools You Need to Prepare for Your College Interview

The 5 Tools You Need to Prepare for Your College Interview SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips So you’ve just landed a college interview for the school of your dreams. That’s amazing! Once you finish celebrating, it’s time to start preparing for the big event. But the process of preparing can feel overwhelming. That’s why we’ve put together our top five tools for preparing for your college interview. Keep reading to learn more about our expert recommendations for the tools you must have to knock your college interview out of the park! Tool 1: An Interview Prep Book Ask any adult: interviews can be a really stressful experience. Not only are you trying to answer your interviewers’ questions, you’re also trying to make a good first impression and prove that you’re a good fit for...well, whatever you’re interviewing for! The college admissions interview can be even more challenging, since many high schoolers haven’t been on many interviews yet! The good news is that interviewing well is a skill that anyone can learn. It just takes practice...and the right tools, of course. One of the best ways to start prepping for any interview is to read a book or two that walks you through the interview process, breaks down tough questions, and helps streamline the preparation process. We’ve scoured the internet and consulted with the admissions experts at PrepScholar to pick the two interview prep books that give you the most bang for your buck! Book 1: Presence by Amy Cuddy Dr. Amy Cuddy, a social psychologist and Harvard professor, made a splash in the business world with her 2012 TED Talk about body language. Not only do your non-verbal cues help people make decisions about you- including whether or not to admit you!- they also affect the way you think about yourself. Dr. Cuddy took all of her observations and combined them into her book, Presence, which teaches people how to use their body language to unlock their full potential. While most interview prep books teach you how to answer interview questions and learn more about the company you’re interviewing for, Cuddy takes a different approach: she focuses on how the way you sit, move, and act impacts the way people perceive you. What we love is that her book teaches you how to be confident in the moment (even a super stressful one like your admission interview)! She also gives you practical tips for how to communicate in powerful, non-verbal ways. So while Presence isn’t an interview prep book in the traditional sense, it’s a critical read to make sure you’re making the best impression possible! Book 2: The Art of the Interview by James Storey One of the challenges in preparing for your college interview is fitting the prep time into your busy schedule. That’s why our second book recommendation is all about practicality. James Storey’s book, The Art of the Interview, is designed for people who want to tackle the most challenging part of the interview process: answering the interview questions! In his book, Storey walks you through commonly asked interview questions and teaches you strategies for responding to even the trickiest questions. The goal of the book isn’t to give you all the â€Å"right† answers, but to help you learn to create answers that resonate with interviewers...and help earn you admission into your dream school. Each chapter deals with different questions, answers, and practical strategies, so you’re not going to have to read through fluff to get into the meat-and-potatoes of what you need to know. Even better? Storey includes lists of potential interview questions! As you know from taking the SAT and/or ACT, practice questions are invaluable when it comes to boosting your performance, and working through Storey’s examples will help you have an amazing interview! Tool 2: A Notebook When it comes to preparing for an interview, pen and paper is king. Not only does research show that writing things down helps you retain information better, you won’t be able to use your phone, laptop, or tablet in the interview room. That means you’ll have to prepare for your interview the old-fashioned way! The first step is to work through the interview preparation books we mentioned above. As you read them, we recommend taking notes in a notebook. Not only will that give you a place to collect what you learn, it will also let you jot down answers to potential interview questions that come to mind. Reviewing your answers to help commit your responses to memory will help you be more confident on interview day! You should also capture any other information that might be valuable for your interview, like details about the university and its programs and the research areas that interest you. So what kind of notebook should you use? Our favorite notebook for interview preparation is the Rhodia 4 Color Book. First, it’s great quality, durable, and professional, so you can take it with you into your interview worry-free. But it also splits the notebook into four sections based on the colored page edges. This gives you a way to split your preparation into categories, like reading notes and answer prep, without having to use page flags to keep the information in order! Your notebook will be your guidebook during the college interview, too. That means you’ll also want to bring your notebook with you on the day of your interview. Not only does it have the questions you drafted for your interviewers, you can also flip through your notes to prepare before you’re called into your interview. As an added bonus, you’ll be able to jot down notes as your interviewers ask you questions and explain the next steps in the admissions process. Being ready and prepared to take notes shows that you have initiative, and it will help you remember important points from the interview later. (It’s a pretty stressful process, so it’s always nice to have something to look back on!) Tool 3: A Folder With Extra Documents When it comes to your college interview, it’s always best to be prepared. We recommend that you print off multiple copies of your application packet and have them ready in case your interview committee needs a refresher on your materials. They may even ask you if you have any extras on you as a way to see how thorough and prepared you are! Here’s the thing: you don’t want to pull out your Lisa Frank folder from fifth grade. (Though we love rainbow-colored unicorns, to be honest.) You’ll want to whip out a professional-looking folder that has all of your documents neatly organized. If you have quite a few documents, like additional writing samples, you might consider getting an expanding file organizer instead. It will keep your papers neat and make them easier to find if your interviewers request them. Additionally, if you have a design portfolio you’re planning to share, take the time to arrange it in a professional portfolio presentation book. Not only does it keep your portfolio safe, it makes it much easier for your interviewers to flip through your work! Tool 4: A Professional Wardrobe Look, we get it: suits are something your parents wear. You’ve got your own personal style, after all. When it comes to interviews, your first impression really does matter. Putting effort into looking professional shows that you’re taking the interview process seriously, which is a good sign that you’ll also take your education seriously, too. Remember: schools that have an interview process tend to be competitive, so you need every advantage you can get. Here’s what it boils down to: showing up to your college interview in a ratty t-shirt and your ten-year-old Vans isn’t going to impress anyone. But that doesn’t mean you have to look like you pulled your clothes out of your grandparents’ closet! You can look professional and cool at the same time! Traditionally Chic If you want a worry-free wardrobe option for your college interview, we recommend going with a suit. And guess what? You don’t even have to feel like a penguin! The key is to make sure you’re buying the right style of suit for your frame. If you’re slender, go with a slim-fit. If you have a bigger build, don’t be afraid to choose a jacket with a slightly more relaxed fit around the middle. And regardless of your size, embrace the slim-cut pant! It’s pretty universally flattering, and really ties the look together without feeling stuffy. If you just can’t bring yourself to jump on the suit bandwagonor if suits are just a little out of your price rangea blazer is a great option. You can throw a navy blazer over a white button-down shirt, a pair of khakis, and dress shoes, and you’re good to go. If you prefer women’s wear, you can still find a blazer/shirt/khakis combo that looks great. (The rules we mentioned above for picking a suit that...well...suits your figure still apply!) And don’t forget a pair of awesome shoes! It’s also perfectly acceptable to swap out the pants for a skirt, or throw that blazer over a professional dress. Just Add Sunglasses Seriously. Everyone feels more confident when they’re wearing sunglasses! (Of course, don’t wear them in your interview. Think of them as a fashionable morale booster.) That’s why we think you should top off your outfit with a pair of sunglasses that reflects your personality. We love a good pair of aviators, but you also can’t go wrong with a classic, Ray-Ban adjacent silhouette. And then, of course, there’s the Audrey-Hepburn-in-Breakfast-at-Tiffany’s cat eye! Whatever you choose, wear them like the amazing college applicant you are. (Or, you know, just channel your inner Joe Biden.) Tool 5: A Watch Seriously. Being early to an interview is critical. Not only does it demonstrate that you’re organized and prepared, it shows that you’re excited about attending the school you’re interviewing for! It also gives you a chance to review your notes one last time and take a few deep, centering breaths. Because being on time is so important, so we recommend you wear a watch to your interview. We can already hear you asking: â€Å"But why can’t I just use my phone?† On the day of your interview, you need to have your phone on you but turned to silentor better yet, airplane modeand put away. First, science has shown that smartphones can distract us even when we’re not using them, so it’s best to put them away when you need to focus. Second, it’s too tempting to check Twitter or Instagram instead of reviewing your notes and preparing for the super important task at hand! Second, you’ll want to be able to keep track of your time in the interview...and you won’t be able to look at your phone without coming across as rude and disinterested. It’s perfectly acceptable to occasionally glance a watch to see how much time you have left in your interview, or to subtly time yourself to make sure you’re not rambling. Luckily, there are lots of affordable watch options available, especially if you’re not into wearing watches all the time. We love this Timex Easy Reader watch. (Don’t worry, it also comes in men’s styles, too.) Not only is it classic and classy, the numbers are big enough that you’ll be able to discreetly check the time with a quick glance. It comes in three colors, has a leather band, and is water resistant to 30 meters! Not that you’ll be swimming on the day of your interview...but hey! You never know. This can also be a great opportunity to make a long-term investment, too. After all, you’ll be in college soon, and a smartwatch can help you stay healthy and productive. We’re big fans of the Fitbit Versa Smart Watch. It’s compatible with almost all phone operating systems, displays alerts (like calls, texts, and calendar appointments), lets you play music, and even guides you through workouts! It’s a great tool to help you conquer your first year of college. What’s Next? Before you run out and buy everything on our list, make sure you’re college actually has an interview process! Here’s a complete list of colleges that require entrance interviews. (Keep in mind that some schools require on-campus interviews for things like fellowships and endowed scholarships, so it’s always best to double-check with your university.) As we mentioned earlier, the key to having a good interview is to practice, practice, practice. Our top six tips for preparing for college interviews are a surefire way to help you knock your interview out of the park! One of the best ways to land a college interview at your dream school is to knock your SAT or ACT out of the park. Learn more about what SAT and ACT scores mean for college admissions, then decide which test is right for you. These recommendations are based solely on our knowledge and experience. If you purchase an item through one of our links, PrepScholar may receive a commission.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Knowledge, Innovation and Developing a Learning Culture Assignment

Knowledge, Innovation and Developing a Learning Culture - Assignment Example It is in the maxim of knowledge related activities that the role of Human Resource Management has gained importance. It is being argued that Human Resource professionals have not done enough to evolve as strategic business partners. The role of HRM needs to be much more than that of Strategic partners (Ulrich cited by Barton and Aughton). Ulrich (cited by Hartel et.al) has presented a range of market value drivers ranging from leadership credibility, strategic direction, and ability to create capacities. HR Managers are being increasingly asked to acknowledge and incorporate concepts like Knowledge, Innovation and a Learning Culture into their theory and practice. As of now, HRM lies at the starting of the Learning Curve and a lot more needs to be done. Knowledge, Innovation, and development of a Learning Culture lie at the heart of the change in HRM. We will briefly describe the three concepts to bring out the common thread that weaves them. Knowledge Management and Other Key Concepts Hartel et.al refer to knowledge as a coalescing of human experiences with information to transform from a ‘potential’ to ‘practical’ set of ideas that put into practice and yield competitive advantage. Hartel et.al a construct of tacit and explicit knowledge is further elaborated by Fahey and De Long (cited by Hartel et.al) as social and structured knowledge. Social or tacit knowledge develops as notions mostly in informal settings and structured knowledge develop in the formalized settings of an organization. Ingraining them as knowledge gives the â€Å"know how† to perform.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Oreos and Milk, Chinese Style Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Oreos and Milk, Chinese Style - Assignment Example The profit of Kraft in European Union and the developing countries grew outpacing the U.S. profit growth. China, being the fourth largest country, and has the highest population estimated to 1,330,141,295 (as of July 2010) gave Kraft Foods an opportunity in introducing Oreo cookies. Although Kraft introduced the top-selling U.S. style Oreo cookies in 1996, it was only in 2006 that Oreo cookies was totally accepted all over the parts of China. The original Oreo cookies presented was too sweet and too expensive for the Chinese consumers. Kraft however, was not discourage to continue introducing and selling the Oreo cookies in China. This made them think that reinventing the Oreo cookies is the only way that the populous country of China would accept Oreo cookies. Several marketing strategies were made to make their product more acceptable to Chinese consumers. In the event of their study, they found out that, first, the Chinese are not accustomed to sweet foods particularly chocolates (most of the Chinese’ food pattern is more on rice-based products, spices, low calorie diet, soy products, and fruits and vegetables), secondly, China is big which is also divided in two regions, the North and the South, wherein, the two regions has two extreme climate condition (Northern part is extremely cold, while the Southern part is tropical), and third, the Chinese are born thrifty (they find Oreo cookies too expensive). Kraft considered other alternatives to make Chinese consumers patronize Oreo cookies. In 1996, Kraft Foods introduced Oreo cookies in China in the form of the original top-selling Oreo cookies of the U.S. However, even a lot of marketing effort has been done, the sales of the Oreo cookies in China remained flat. This statement is supported with my aforementioned discussion in the research. The study is limited to Kraft Food and its marketing strategy in selling Oreo cookies in China. Kraft’s