Saturday, November 30, 2019

Phenomenological and Social Psychoanalytic Approaches free essay sample

That the simple word l is always in the top twenty most common words used in the English languages Is no coincidence-?we are central to our framework of the world, ND therefore our self Is of great Importance to everything we do and think. Whether self is a set of attitudes, roles or characteristics and how much of those stem from our own individuality and how much from how we fit into society, is key to understanding the impact and influence that our self-images have on our lives. If you were asked to define your self, how would you do it?Would you say, l am a mother, I am a daughter, I am a doctor, using your roles In smaller and larger societies to define yourself? Or would you choose Instead to define yourself by the individual characteristics that serve to set you apart from your group and the world en masses-?l am funny, I am kind, I am shy? As central as the question of self may be, there is surprisingly little empirical research in social psychology on how we define ourselves . We will write a custom essay sample on Phenomenological and Social Psychoanalytic Approaches or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the main, this can be attributed to the inability to agree on whether self Is a set of attitudes or if it is otherwise constructed. Kuhn and McFarland (McFarland, 1954), however, did attempt to develop an experiment that would begin to clarify some of these questions. They asked 288 undergraduate students to answer who am l? Twenty different ways, in a short amount of time. As sociologists, they looked at their results from a different perspective than social psychologists, but it is still of interest to see how the students responded in ways that held up the idea of an individual-society dichotomy.Invariably, their responses showcased either the role they filled (student, son, friend) or how they saw themselves as Individuals (smart, gentle, tall) While our binary constructs can help to clarify and simplify a question, it can also serve to make formulating a real-world answer more difficult. Just as the self cannot e defined strictly in terms of its conscious formulations while discounting its unconscious, so too is it impossible to truly understand the self when using the foundation of the Individual-society du alism.This paper will examine how two social psychological perspectives-? phenomenological and social psychoanalytical-?have worked to define the self and how well they have managed to step away from the black and white dualism of individual-society, that has been historically prevalent, and develop a more cohesive, integrated model of the self. When looking at the history of how a topic has been understood, it is always important to remember that knowledge is not a static formulation. Rather, it is a dynamic product that is always at the mercy of the historical framework in which it finds itself. (Holloway, 2007) The understanding of any subject comes down to the time period, the culture, and the social location present for that subjects. Consider, for example, how the study of the self was far less popular in psychology in the United States in the mid-twentieth century than it is now, or indeed, as it was in other fields such as philosophy or sociology. It is necessary to remember that during this time period, psychology in the U. S. As very much concerned with separating itself from the philosophical disciplines and becoming more aligned with the sciences-? the study of the self can be seen to underscore the nebulous nature of the field, which was against the goals of that time and placed. In Britain in 1694, society was in the midst of the ramifications of a society moving away from agriculture and towards industry-?creating the fear of social ties being broken and of kinship no longer being the sole consideration for what makes a person-?when John Locke began to discuss personal identity in a way that saw it as a natural, observable phenomenon 4. This was a departure from when the basic understanding of self saw it both as a reflection of the immortal soul and of familial descent. What we take for granted-?that the self is not merely a collection of outer actions, but is also made up of a self-consciousness-?was then considered to be exceedingly modern and revolutionary. The idea of defining self based on familial descent is an interesting one, as it serves to underscore the importance of situated knowledge in this topic.Whereas in the Western world academics have moved increasingly towards the individualistic of he self, it is important to remember that in many third-world cultures defining the self is still very much a matter of defining the kinship ties a person has and their relatedness to the rest of the worlds. Does this mean that the self is a different entity depending on where you live? Is a person less of a separate being in Kenya than they are in Britain?This is at the root of why any definition that relies solely on a binary definition of self-?especially of individual-society dualism-will always be lacking. While this paper is primarily concerned with the issue of individual-society dualism, peeping in mind the other binary concepts that have had an impact on the definition of self-?integrated vs.. Fragmented, conscious vs.. Unconscious, true vs.. False-?can help to reinforce the idea that attempting to follow a strict dichotomy undermines the ability to achieve a realistic, usable definition of the self.The social psychoanalytic perspective and the self Social psychoanalysis is one of the best perspectives in merging dualistic thinking into a more cohesive whole. This is the perspective that best strives to see how the unconscious impacts the conscious and vice versa and how the fragmented forms motional experiences. The best strength of social psychoanalysis is that it is able to delve into the hidden depths of meaning in a persons experiences and relationships.If the best way to combat the individual-society strict dualism is to understand the interplay between the two, then social psychoanalysis is well-placed to find that interaction. Psychoanalysis is able to look at an individuals setting and relationships and delve deeper into the emotional interplay that has such an impact on that persons definition of self. This allows the focus to be on the dynamic experience of an individual who is always a sum total of their relationships and settings, and cannot be broken down to individual parts outside of those connections.Consider, for example, a sibling relationship. Siblings and placement in ones family is fundamental in how a person defines themselves by role-?I am an older brother, I am a protector, I am an only child-?and in the dynamics of how those relationships establish their own moral a nd cultural codes for that person, which is inherent in their unconscious motivations. Here then, is a clear interplay between the hidden ND the visible in defining the self, which the social psychoanalytic perspective is best poised to understand. The phenomenological perspective and the self The strong ties between phenomenology and philosophy lend both the greatest strengths for phenomenological perspectives to explain a cohesive definition of self, but also the greatest weakness in forming a definition of self that is applicable in the practical world: Because phenomenology is considered to be fundamentally irrelevant in any scientific explanation of the mind, the person-level is regarded as scientifically invisible: it is a ghost-like housing for sub-personal computational cognition.The problem of explaining how the sub-personal and sub-phenomenological machinery of mind is related to person-level experience is as troublesome for cognitive psychology as the problem Descartes faced in explaining how the ghost (the non- corporeal mind) is related to the machine (the material body)8. On the surface, phenomenology stands out as being one of the best perspectives to take on when attempting to view the definition of self away f rom the harsh dichotomy of individual-society.As phenomenology looks at how a person experiences the world hey inhabit, without the brackets of prior assumptions and understandings, it is well-situated to examine the essence of the self as it exists, rather than within the constraints of defining where that meaning comes from. This perspective retains its close links with its philosophical roots, and is therefore less bound by the attempts of scientific methodology to reduce definitions down to measurable parts. In phenomenology, a person does not need to be separated from the parts of their in whatever shape it takes in that particular moment.This is best understood through the core concept of lifework, wherein each person is seen as being inseparable from the setting of that persons life and their experience within that setting. This emphasis on a persons experiences, shared with others found in their situated settings, helps phenomenology to go beyond the individual-society dualism concept and instead formulate an idea of self as a fully in-the-moment combination of meaning. Concluding thoughts Both phenomenological and social psychoanalytical perspectives do much to move away from the individual-society dualism, though their methods in doing so are markedly different.Both methods look to go beyond simply what the person says is heir idea of self-?social psychoanalysis by looking for the hidden emotional meaning and connection of the words and phenomenology by looking below the surface for the meaning behind the experience. Both perspectives-?perhaps most importantly-? allow for an understanding of the self that is dynamically changing and developing as the individual has experiences and formulates meaning out of those experiences. This is the greatest combination of individual and society, where a person is both their existence in society, but also how they formulate the meaning of that existence.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Virgil at Odds essays

Virgil at Odds essays While on the surface the Aeneid could be seen as a Roman epic meant to glorify Rome and rival those of the ancient Greeks, the author was engaged in a struggle. Virgil had to satisfy the cultural demands of his work, the political demands of his time, and his own personal demands as an artist. In tackling his problem, Virgil is revealed to be slightly reluctant of embracing fully the still young regime of Octavian but still proud of Rome and his ancestry, and concerned with the moral issues of civil war. When considering the style with which Virgil composed the Aeneid, it is important to look at the time in which he lived and exactly what was going on around him when it was written. Virgil was born in 70 BC and died in 19 BC. This places him in the very beginning of what was to be a long and relatively stable existence of the Roman Empire. Further, it was during the poet's lifetime that Rome made citizens of all Italians, allowing a huge community to share in Rome's growing heritage. People who formerly may have felt like outcasts under the oppression of Rome could now call Rome their own. This included Virgil because he came from a provincial Italian town far outside Rome. W.A. Camps cites that while Virgil was still a young man, his family's estates were confiscated by Caesar to be given to veterans of the battle of Philippi (1). Caesar was eventually assassinated and the next twenty years of the poet's life are shaded by bloody struggles for power among heirs and military leaders. Eventually Caesar's adopted son Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Cleopatra's forces and brings all Rome under his rule, in about 30 BC. This is important because Virgil had been fond of Octavian, although it is not known if he publicly supported anyone during the conflict. It is known that Virgil came to enjoy first the friendship then the patronage of Octavian and his minister Maecenas, both of whom bestowed a small fortune upon him (...

Friday, November 22, 2019

The 5 Tools You Need to Prepare for Your College Interview

The 5 Tools You Need to Prepare for Your College Interview SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips So you’ve just landed a college interview for the school of your dreams. That’s amazing! Once you finish celebrating, it’s time to start preparing for the big event. But the process of preparing can feel overwhelming. That’s why we’ve put together our top five tools for preparing for your college interview. Keep reading to learn more about our expert recommendations for the tools you must have to knock your college interview out of the park! Tool 1: An Interview Prep Book Ask any adult: interviews can be a really stressful experience. Not only are you trying to answer your interviewers’ questions, you’re also trying to make a good first impression and prove that you’re a good fit for...well, whatever you’re interviewing for! The college admissions interview can be even more challenging, since many high schoolers haven’t been on many interviews yet! The good news is that interviewing well is a skill that anyone can learn. It just takes practice...and the right tools, of course. One of the best ways to start prepping for any interview is to read a book or two that walks you through the interview process, breaks down tough questions, and helps streamline the preparation process. We’ve scoured the internet and consulted with the admissions experts at PrepScholar to pick the two interview prep books that give you the most bang for your buck! Book 1: Presence by Amy Cuddy Dr. Amy Cuddy, a social psychologist and Harvard professor, made a splash in the business world with her 2012 TED Talk about body language. Not only do your non-verbal cues help people make decisions about you- including whether or not to admit you!- they also affect the way you think about yourself. Dr. Cuddy took all of her observations and combined them into her book, Presence, which teaches people how to use their body language to unlock their full potential. While most interview prep books teach you how to answer interview questions and learn more about the company you’re interviewing for, Cuddy takes a different approach: she focuses on how the way you sit, move, and act impacts the way people perceive you. What we love is that her book teaches you how to be confident in the moment (even a super stressful one like your admission interview)! She also gives you practical tips for how to communicate in powerful, non-verbal ways. So while Presence isn’t an interview prep book in the traditional sense, it’s a critical read to make sure you’re making the best impression possible! Book 2: The Art of the Interview by James Storey One of the challenges in preparing for your college interview is fitting the prep time into your busy schedule. That’s why our second book recommendation is all about practicality. James Storey’s book, The Art of the Interview, is designed for people who want to tackle the most challenging part of the interview process: answering the interview questions! In his book, Storey walks you through commonly asked interview questions and teaches you strategies for responding to even the trickiest questions. The goal of the book isn’t to give you all the â€Å"right† answers, but to help you learn to create answers that resonate with interviewers...and help earn you admission into your dream school. Each chapter deals with different questions, answers, and practical strategies, so you’re not going to have to read through fluff to get into the meat-and-potatoes of what you need to know. Even better? Storey includes lists of potential interview questions! As you know from taking the SAT and/or ACT, practice questions are invaluable when it comes to boosting your performance, and working through Storey’s examples will help you have an amazing interview! Tool 2: A Notebook When it comes to preparing for an interview, pen and paper is king. Not only does research show that writing things down helps you retain information better, you won’t be able to use your phone, laptop, or tablet in the interview room. That means you’ll have to prepare for your interview the old-fashioned way! The first step is to work through the interview preparation books we mentioned above. As you read them, we recommend taking notes in a notebook. Not only will that give you a place to collect what you learn, it will also let you jot down answers to potential interview questions that come to mind. Reviewing your answers to help commit your responses to memory will help you be more confident on interview day! You should also capture any other information that might be valuable for your interview, like details about the university and its programs and the research areas that interest you. So what kind of notebook should you use? Our favorite notebook for interview preparation is the Rhodia 4 Color Book. First, it’s great quality, durable, and professional, so you can take it with you into your interview worry-free. But it also splits the notebook into four sections based on the colored page edges. This gives you a way to split your preparation into categories, like reading notes and answer prep, without having to use page flags to keep the information in order! Your notebook will be your guidebook during the college interview, too. That means you’ll also want to bring your notebook with you on the day of your interview. Not only does it have the questions you drafted for your interviewers, you can also flip through your notes to prepare before you’re called into your interview. As an added bonus, you’ll be able to jot down notes as your interviewers ask you questions and explain the next steps in the admissions process. Being ready and prepared to take notes shows that you have initiative, and it will help you remember important points from the interview later. (It’s a pretty stressful process, so it’s always nice to have something to look back on!) Tool 3: A Folder With Extra Documents When it comes to your college interview, it’s always best to be prepared. We recommend that you print off multiple copies of your application packet and have them ready in case your interview committee needs a refresher on your materials. They may even ask you if you have any extras on you as a way to see how thorough and prepared you are! Here’s the thing: you don’t want to pull out your Lisa Frank folder from fifth grade. (Though we love rainbow-colored unicorns, to be honest.) You’ll want to whip out a professional-looking folder that has all of your documents neatly organized. If you have quite a few documents, like additional writing samples, you might consider getting an expanding file organizer instead. It will keep your papers neat and make them easier to find if your interviewers request them. Additionally, if you have a design portfolio you’re planning to share, take the time to arrange it in a professional portfolio presentation book. Not only does it keep your portfolio safe, it makes it much easier for your interviewers to flip through your work! Tool 4: A Professional Wardrobe Look, we get it: suits are something your parents wear. You’ve got your own personal style, after all. When it comes to interviews, your first impression really does matter. Putting effort into looking professional shows that you’re taking the interview process seriously, which is a good sign that you’ll also take your education seriously, too. Remember: schools that have an interview process tend to be competitive, so you need every advantage you can get. Here’s what it boils down to: showing up to your college interview in a ratty t-shirt and your ten-year-old Vans isn’t going to impress anyone. But that doesn’t mean you have to look like you pulled your clothes out of your grandparents’ closet! You can look professional and cool at the same time! Traditionally Chic If you want a worry-free wardrobe option for your college interview, we recommend going with a suit. And guess what? You don’t even have to feel like a penguin! The key is to make sure you’re buying the right style of suit for your frame. If you’re slender, go with a slim-fit. If you have a bigger build, don’t be afraid to choose a jacket with a slightly more relaxed fit around the middle. And regardless of your size, embrace the slim-cut pant! It’s pretty universally flattering, and really ties the look together without feeling stuffy. If you just can’t bring yourself to jump on the suit bandwagonor if suits are just a little out of your price rangea blazer is a great option. You can throw a navy blazer over a white button-down shirt, a pair of khakis, and dress shoes, and you’re good to go. If you prefer women’s wear, you can still find a blazer/shirt/khakis combo that looks great. (The rules we mentioned above for picking a suit that...well...suits your figure still apply!) And don’t forget a pair of awesome shoes! It’s also perfectly acceptable to swap out the pants for a skirt, or throw that blazer over a professional dress. Just Add Sunglasses Seriously. Everyone feels more confident when they’re wearing sunglasses! (Of course, don’t wear them in your interview. Think of them as a fashionable morale booster.) That’s why we think you should top off your outfit with a pair of sunglasses that reflects your personality. We love a good pair of aviators, but you also can’t go wrong with a classic, Ray-Ban adjacent silhouette. And then, of course, there’s the Audrey-Hepburn-in-Breakfast-at-Tiffany’s cat eye! Whatever you choose, wear them like the amazing college applicant you are. (Or, you know, just channel your inner Joe Biden.) Tool 5: A Watch Seriously. Being early to an interview is critical. Not only does it demonstrate that you’re organized and prepared, it shows that you’re excited about attending the school you’re interviewing for! It also gives you a chance to review your notes one last time and take a few deep, centering breaths. Because being on time is so important, so we recommend you wear a watch to your interview. We can already hear you asking: â€Å"But why can’t I just use my phone?† On the day of your interview, you need to have your phone on you but turned to silentor better yet, airplane modeand put away. First, science has shown that smartphones can distract us even when we’re not using them, so it’s best to put them away when you need to focus. Second, it’s too tempting to check Twitter or Instagram instead of reviewing your notes and preparing for the super important task at hand! Second, you’ll want to be able to keep track of your time in the interview...and you won’t be able to look at your phone without coming across as rude and disinterested. It’s perfectly acceptable to occasionally glance a watch to see how much time you have left in your interview, or to subtly time yourself to make sure you’re not rambling. Luckily, there are lots of affordable watch options available, especially if you’re not into wearing watches all the time. We love this Timex Easy Reader watch. (Don’t worry, it also comes in men’s styles, too.) Not only is it classic and classy, the numbers are big enough that you’ll be able to discreetly check the time with a quick glance. It comes in three colors, has a leather band, and is water resistant to 30 meters! Not that you’ll be swimming on the day of your interview...but hey! You never know. This can also be a great opportunity to make a long-term investment, too. After all, you’ll be in college soon, and a smartwatch can help you stay healthy and productive. We’re big fans of the Fitbit Versa Smart Watch. It’s compatible with almost all phone operating systems, displays alerts (like calls, texts, and calendar appointments), lets you play music, and even guides you through workouts! It’s a great tool to help you conquer your first year of college. What’s Next? Before you run out and buy everything on our list, make sure you’re college actually has an interview process! Here’s a complete list of colleges that require entrance interviews. (Keep in mind that some schools require on-campus interviews for things like fellowships and endowed scholarships, so it’s always best to double-check with your university.) As we mentioned earlier, the key to having a good interview is to practice, practice, practice. Our top six tips for preparing for college interviews are a surefire way to help you knock your interview out of the park! One of the best ways to land a college interview at your dream school is to knock your SAT or ACT out of the park. Learn more about what SAT and ACT scores mean for college admissions, then decide which test is right for you. These recommendations are based solely on our knowledge and experience. If you purchase an item through one of our links, PrepScholar may receive a commission.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Knowledge, Innovation and Developing a Learning Culture Assignment

Knowledge, Innovation and Developing a Learning Culture - Assignment Example It is in the maxim of knowledge related activities that the role of Human Resource Management has gained importance. It is being argued that Human Resource professionals have not done enough to evolve as strategic business partners. The role of HRM needs to be much more than that of Strategic partners (Ulrich cited by Barton and Aughton). Ulrich (cited by Hartel has presented a range of market value drivers ranging from leadership credibility, strategic direction, and ability to create capacities. HR Managers are being increasingly asked to acknowledge and incorporate concepts like Knowledge, Innovation and a Learning Culture into their theory and practice. As of now, HRM lies at the starting of the Learning Curve and a lot more needs to be done. Knowledge, Innovation, and development of a Learning Culture lie at the heart of the change in HRM. We will briefly describe the three concepts to bring out the common thread that weaves them. Knowledge Management and Other Key Concepts Hartel refer to knowledge as a coalescing of human experiences with information to transform from a ‘potential’ to ‘practical’ set of ideas that put into practice and yield competitive advantage. Hartel a construct of tacit and explicit knowledge is further elaborated by Fahey and De Long (cited by Hartel as social and structured knowledge. Social or tacit knowledge develops as notions mostly in informal settings and structured knowledge develop in the formalized settings of an organization. Ingraining them as knowledge gives the â€Å"know how† to perform.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Oreos and Milk, Chinese Style Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Oreos and Milk, Chinese Style - Assignment Example The profit of Kraft in European Union and the developing countries grew outpacing the U.S. profit growth. China, being the fourth largest country, and has the highest population estimated to 1,330,141,295 (as of July 2010) gave Kraft Foods an opportunity in introducing Oreo cookies. Although Kraft introduced the top-selling U.S. style Oreo cookies in 1996, it was only in 2006 that Oreo cookies was totally accepted all over the parts of China. The original Oreo cookies presented was too sweet and too expensive for the Chinese consumers. Kraft however, was not discourage to continue introducing and selling the Oreo cookies in China. This made them think that reinventing the Oreo cookies is the only way that the populous country of China would accept Oreo cookies. Several marketing strategies were made to make their product more acceptable to Chinese consumers. In the event of their study, they found out that, first, the Chinese are not accustomed to sweet foods particularly chocolates (most of the Chinese’ food pattern is more on rice-based products, spices, low calorie diet, soy products, and fruits and vegetables), secondly, China is big which is also divided in two regions, the North and the South, wherein, the two regions has two extreme climate condition (Northern part is extremely cold, while the Southern part is tropical), and third, the Chinese are born thrifty (they find Oreo cookies too expensive). Kraft considered other alternatives to make Chinese consumers patronize Oreo cookies. In 1996, Kraft Foods introduced Oreo cookies in China in the form of the original top-selling Oreo cookies of the U.S. However, even a lot of marketing effort has been done, the sales of the Oreo cookies in China remained flat. This statement is supported with my aforementioned discussion in the research. The study is limited to Kraft Food and its marketing strategy in selling Oreo cookies in China. Kraft’s

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Youtube Case Study Essay Example for Free

Youtube Case Study Essay Question 1: There are several competitive forces challenging the movie industry. Film corporations are currently facing the challenges of websites offering free downloadable movie torrents along with DVD readers on computers, portable video devices, and the start up of the website YouTube in February 2005. Free online film downloads are four times more popular than legal film downloads that are paid for. This new industry is giving customers power to challenge movie store prices, customers are substituting pricey blockbuster rentals with free online downloads. This is transforming Movie rental establishments into price takers, rather than price makers. The online market is a new market for the movie industry; this is a problem because large film corporations are overcharging for their online products. They do not realize that Twenty dollars for a 24 hour movie rental is not going to appeal to customers. Another problem the movie industry is facing is that 30 to 70 percent of Hollywood derived content has been submitted to YouTube without legal consent. YouTube is profiting on movies that cost major production studios over $129 million to make. These problems are forcing film companies to enter the digital firm where business relationships are digitally enabled. They are entering agreements with online companies such as CinemaNow and Movielink, selling their products online via download. This has transformed the entire way the film industry marketed their movies. The strategic value of entering the online world is basically for mere survival of the industry. The problem of YouTube has also added complication to the creation of films. It has caused companies to resort to hiring more staff in an attempt to monitor the website. It has also forced the development of new technology such as Video ID which has been added to films in order to prevent unauthorized videos from appearing on YouTube. Question 2: Disruptive technologies such as YouTube and other free media websites have severely impacted the companies discussed in this case. Viacom (The world’s fourth largest media conglomerate) has resorted to filing a lawsuit against YouTube for $1.25 billion dollars in damages because more than 150,000 unauthorized clips if Viacoms copyrighted material has appeared on YouTube. Disruptive technologies have caused companies like NBC universal to resort to new job positions involving searching YouTube everyday for property posted without consent. So on top of losing money from lack of sales revenue, companies are forced to spend money filing lawsuits and hiring employees to tackle this new interfering technology. Question 3: Because YouTube is such a powerful company, studios have decided against Viacom’s decision (filing a lawsuit) and are developing a more constructive solution. Companies such as NBC Universal, Time Warner’s Warner Brothers and Twentieth Century Fox have entered into negotiations with YouTube to establish licensing agreements. They are shifting into information system trends like using websites (YouTube) for advertising. The goal of this response is basically to maximise revenue streams made possible by this new technology. It allows companies to earn revenues where their products might otherwise have been distributed illegally. This is something learned from the music industry. The movie industry needs to follow in the footsteps of the music industry; iTunes music store sells music for .99 cents per song. I think lowering the fee for online movie downloading could definitely benefit the industry. The music industry has been dealing with copyright infringement for several years; the movie business needs to team up with the online music conglomerate to learn from their experience and to work together to find an overall better way to overcome the challenge of copyright infringement. Question 4: I think motion picture companies should most definitely continue to use YouTube to promote their new films. YouTube is a heavily trafficked website reporting over 100 million video views per day; this provides valuable exposure for companies in the film industry. Information Technology is only going to grow larger, the film industry needs to find a way to take part in this revolution and take advantage of what Information Technology has to offer or else it will become a thing of the past with VHS’s and Cassette tapes.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Standardized Tests :: Standardized Testing Essays

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Standardized tests are very common throughout the United States. They are used to measure students’ academic performances in school. These tests vary from state to state in all grade levels. However, these tests are believed to be biased towards those students who come from higher-class neighborhoods, simply because they have more educational resources. â€Å"The absence of standards virtually guarantees stratified resources and access to knowledge, based upon income, color of skin, and the community and neighborhood in which one lives† (French, 2003). The resources in the suburban areas differ from those in the urban areas, because of the gap within the difference of incomes. Families living in suburban neighborhoods have a bigger income, which enables them to have more resources than those living in urban neighborhoods. Most educational resources come from taxes, which plays a big part in the gap between urban and suburban neighborhoods.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This gap causes a disadvantage to those individuals living in lower class neighborhoods, because they do not see or have as many resources as those living in the suburbs. Because of the lack of resources that are provided to those living in the lower-class neighborhoods they are not as prepared for the standardized tests as their higher-class counterparts. These standardized tests are seeing new standards every couple of years or so. Some of the new standards include, students receiving a certain score in the tested subject areas in order to refrain from failing and being retained in the same grade, or even going to summer school just to be promoted. Are these standards helping or hurting?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is hard to say whether these tests are efficient in assessing a student’s knowledge. There have been studies done that shows how students perform contributes to a number of factors. Students are individuals just as adults and can easily slip up on a test, just as many adults have done because of numerous reasons. They suffer from stress, lack of sleep, how they are feeling, whether they ate, and many other reasons. â€Å"These influences most dramatically affect low-income students and students of color† (French, 2003). From the rise of immigration there have been tests (IQ and Stanford-Binet) that were used to sort and track students based on race and income. According to a study it has been concluded that these tests will continue to hinder the ability of Black and Latino students to graduate from high school (Orfield and Wald, 2000; Haney, 1999; McNeil, 2000).

Monday, November 11, 2019

One Friday Morning Essay

The short story â€Å"One Friday Morning† by Langston Hughes is about a young black girl, Nancy Lee, who recently moved out of the South with her parents so they may provide her with a better life and schooling. Very talented in watercolor painting, she wanted to make that her major in college. Regrettably, there are some people in the world that are just blinded by race and forget how America was supposed to be a place for equal rights without tyranny. Nancy Lee may be a colored girl, but at times in her new school she forgets that she has different skin color than the rest of the students. Her peers would overlook her race as well, and they saw her as a young and talented individual. This represents foreshadowing that she was not seen as colored although she was. Nancy Lee had painted an award winning piece worthy of a scholarship to an art institute. The painting was of her grandmother sitting on a park bench looking at the American flag on a bright sunny day. Unfortunately, the art institute didn’t realize that Nancy Lee was a colored girl at the time they chose her painting. When it was made known, they decided to give the scholarship to a white student as they felt if Nancy Lee were to attend the Institute it would cause controversy amongst others. The day Nancy was to receive the award, she was told by her principal, Miss O’Shay, that she would not acquire this magnificent prize because of the color of her skin. Miss O’Shay regrettably informed the talented girl that â€Å"When the committee learned that you were colored, they changed their plans. † Nancy Lee looked up at her principal and noticed the bright spring day it was outside just like in her painting. At the weekly assembly, Nancy Lee took her seat along with 3000 other students, turned her head, and said the pledge to the flag that is supposed to symbolize freedom and equal rights with â€Å"Liberty and justice for all†. She then decided that even though she was not accepting the award, which was rightfully hers, she would fight to make a difference in the future so no other young girls would go through what she was currently enduring. One gloomy day the principal, Miss O’Shay called Nancy Lee into her office after school. Miss O’Shay made Nancy Lee aware that her painting had won the contest; but also asked her to keep it a secret until the assembly on Friday when she was to accept the award. She was not supposed to tell Nancy Lee, however, Miss O’Shay felt it would be in Nancy Lee’s best interest to know ahead of time so she wouldn’t be taken off guard and could remain composure at the time of the acceptance. The irony in this is that if Miss O’Shay did not tell Nancy Lee of her winning then, on the day of the assembly, Nancy Lee would not have to be called into the office to receive the disturbing news that she would not be called on stage to accept the award because of the color of her skin. Even though Nancy Lee, as well as her peers, would sometimes forget that she was a brown girl, the committee couldn’t see past her skin color. Nancy Lee went from being a bright eyed, brown colored girl to a dark girl that day. Within the context of the story Langston Hughes portrays the stars on the American Flag as a symbol of hope to all. Not only in the 1950’s but also in today’s society the stars on our flag of freedom represent what all Americans are about, liberation and equal rights for all. Our ancestors came to this country to make a better life for themselves as well as their children. Even during our national anthem â€Å"The Star Spangled Banner† the last verse says â€Å"Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave, o’er the land of the free and the home of the brave† The stars on the flag will always mean the same regardless the year whether its 1814 when the national anthem was written, the 1950’s when this story took place, or in the year 2012. Bigotry is something that we all have to deal with. Some people are so scared of change and anything different. Even though we all have the same rights as humans, some people just can’t see past the color of a person’s skin; not just the outer difference, but also religious beliefs as well. We live in a society that no matter how much a person can persevere through discrimination there is always going to be someone to try and hold them back. In my point of view, intolerance of someone that is different is a disgrace to all mankind. This is something that Langston Hughes illustrates very well in the story. Nancy Lee, a very talented young girl, deserved to win the scholarship; but because of the color of her skin she was denied what was rightfully hers.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Analysis of Darcy’s first proposal to Elizabeth Essay

Look again at the Darcy’s first proposal to Elizabeth that is made in this novel. Choose at least two and, write responses to the following questions: * under what circumstances does Darcy propose * how does Elizabeth respond and why * how does Austen present the proposal to the reader That evening, just before Mr. Darcy comes to meet Elizabeth , she rereads Jane’s letters and finds out Mr. Darcy’s ‘shameful boast’ of misery that inflicted Jane’s happiness and it gives her a ‘keener sense of her sister’s sufferings’. To Elizabeth’s ‘utter amazement’, Darcy enters the room approaching her ‘in a hurried manner’ enquiring after her health. He ‘sat for a few moments’, got up, and ‘walked about the room’. Mr. Darcy’s body language shows that he is nervous and agitated. Then he took several minutes to say his true love for her that how ‘ardently’ he ‘admires’ and ‘loves’ her. However, the reader later realises that his nervousness is not due to his love for Elizabeth is so great but due to the hesitation, whether it is a good idea to propose considering the inferiority of her family and social background. Mr. Darcy explains to Elizabeth that ‘in vain’ he has ‘struggled’ to ‘repress’ his feelings towards not to love her’ he expresses his love for her unromantically and was less ‘eloquent on the subject of tenderness than of pride’. He talks about ‘his sense of her inferiority’ and the ‘family obstacles which judgment had always opposed inclination’. He means that although he had loved her for a long time he knows that her family is beneath him. Mr. Darcy considered his wealth and status as ‘sufficient encouragement’ for Elizabeth to accept his hand of marriage. Elizabeth ‘could see that he had no doubt of a favourable answer ‘as he ‘spoke with apprehension and anxiety’ although his ‘countenance expressed real security’. When Mr. Darcy first enters Elizabeth’s room, her ‘astonishment was beyond expression. She stared, coloured, doubted and was silent’. Then Darcy tells Elizabeth how much he loves her in spite of her ‘inferiority’ and her family’s degradation’. Despite of her ‘deeply-rooted dislike’ for Mr. Darcy, Elizabeth ‘could not be sensible to the compliment of such a man’s affection’. She is flattered when she realises how much he loves her and ‘she is sorry for the pain he was to receive, but she ‘lost all compassion in anger’ with his subsequent criticism of her ‘family’s inferiority’ while asking her to marry him. As Mr. Darcy ‘spoke with apprehension and anxiety, Elizabeth’s ‘colour rose to her cheeks’, she refuses Mr. Darcy and says that she could not ‘feel any gratitude’ towards his proposal and she has ‘never desired’ his good opinion. Mr. Darcy is furious and looks at her ‘with no less resentment than surprise. ‘His complexion became pale with anger, and he was struggling for the appearance of composure’. He enquires ‘in a voice of forced calmness why she refused him ‘with so little endeavor at civility’ Elizabeth replies in a confrontational manner asking why he has spoken with ‘so evident a design of offending and insulting’ her by telling how much he loves her against his ‘will’, ‘reason’ and his ‘character’. She uses this opportunity to express how her feelings have been hurt by his insulting comment. Furthermore, she goes on to explain that even if his feelings had been ‘favourable’ she would never marry a person who has ‘ruined the happiness of a most beloved sister’. Although Darcy changed colour at this moment, he showed no feelings of remorse and listens ‘with a simile of affected incredulity’ as Elizabeth explains how he destroyed Jane’s happiness by splitting up Jane and Bingley. Mr. Darcy admits that he did ‘everything in his power to separate his friend from Elizabeth’s sister and he adds ‘to him (Mr. Bingley) I have been kinder than to myself’. This ‘civil reflection’ of Mr. Darcy, which she disdained, was unlikely to ‘conciliate her’. Elizabeth replies that Mr. Darcy’s interference in Jane and Bingley’s relationship was not the only reason for her bad opinion against him. She mentions what she had heard from Mr.Wickham. He responds to this ‘in a less tranquil tone and with heightened colour’. He answers that she taken ‘an eager interest’ in his concerns and Elizabeth accuses him of depriving Mr.Wickham, ‘the independence which was no less his due than his desert’. She is shocked by seeing Mr. Darcy speaking of him ‘with contempt and ridicule’. Mr. Darcy’s says that ‘perhaps these offences might have been overlooked, had not your (Elizabeth) pride been hurt by my honest confession of the scruples that have long prevented my forming of any serious design’. This explains that he believes his honesty has made her reject him and asks her ‘Could you expect me to rejoice in the inferior of your connections? To congratulate myself on the hope of my relations, whose conditions in life is so decidedly beneath my own?’ Jane Austen comments to the reader that Elizabeth ‘felt herself growing angrier every moment’. However, ‘she tried to the utmost to speak with composure’. When she says to Mr. Darcy ‘you could not have made me the offer of your hand in any possible way that would have tempted me to accept it’, Mr. Darcy astonished by this remark and looks at her ‘with an expression of mingled incredulity and mortification’. She further comments that she disliked him from the very first time they met because of his ‘arrogance†¦.conceit†¦ self disdain of the feelings of others’. Her ‘immovable dislike’ has made her feel that he was ‘the last man in the world’ that she ‘could be prevailed to marry’. After Mr. Darcy left, Jane Austen writes that Elizabeth cried for half an hour. It seems she felt it was ‘almost incredible’ that Mr. Darcy is so much in love as to wish to marry her in spite of all the objections which had prevented his friend (Mr. Bingley) marrying her sister. She feels it was ‘gratifying to have inspired unconsciously so strong an affection’ but Elizabeth condemns Mr. Darcy’s ‘abominable pride’ and ‘his shameless avowal of what he had done with respect to Jane’ and Mr. Darcy’s ‘unfeeling manner’ when he spoke of Wickham. Jane Austen portrays how men and women in her times considered marriage through different characters in the novel. Mr. and Mrs. Bennet’s family especially shows that middle class women could not work; it would be seen as improper. Mrs. Bennet is desperate to get her daughters married to wealthy young men. This shows that parents were very much involved when it came to their daughter’s marriage and would play a large role in finding a husband. Jane Austen views love as the foundation for a happy marriage. This view is mainly portrayed through Darcy and Elizabeth’s marriage and this is thought be the best marriage in the novel along with Jane and Bingley’s marriage because they are well suited and they are financially secure. Mr. and Mrs. Bennet, Lydia and Wickham and Charlotte and Mr. Collin’s marriages are viewed as bad marriages as their marriages lack the element of love that the other two good marriages have a plenty. Jane Austen portrays that these marriages are bad due to lack of intelligence and wit that neither person has, the lack understanding and communication between each other in their married life. Lydia running away with Mr. Wickham without getting married was a big scandal in the novel. She was excluded from the society as she went against its traditional values of the society in those times. However, getting married reduced the shame slightly that was passed on to the family. Jane Austen shows the consequences that will occur to women who live together with a man without getting married. Charlotte married Mr. Collin because she felt she was already a burden for her family and this would be a social embarrassment. Mr. Collins is Mr. Bennet’s closest male who will inherit his estate, which meant that he had definite financial security. This marriage shows that there was a lot of pressure on women like Charlotte from society. She is influenced to marry a man for financial security, protection and a house of her own.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Emphasise The Importance Of Introducing Gender Mainstreaming Social Work Essay Essay Example

Emphasise The Importance Of Introducing Gender Mainstreaming Social Work Essay Essay Example Emphasise The Importance Of Introducing Gender Mainstreaming Social Work Essay Essay Emphasise The Importance Of Introducing Gender Mainstreaming Social Work Essay Essay and Oxfam GB defined gender mainstreaming in a set of guidelines for its staff as follows: A procedure of guaranting that all its work, and the manner it is done, contributes to gender equality by transforming the balance of power between adult females and work forces , with this attitude we should every bit good approach gender mainstreaming in our company.[ 1 ]The United Nations Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women elaborates on the definition of gender equality as the equal rights, duties and chances of adult females and work forces and misss and male childs ; and adds that equality does non intend that adult females and work forces will go the same but that adult females s and work forces s rights, duties and chances will non depend on whether they are born male or female. Gender equality entails both adult females and work forces and non merely adult females s issue. Reaching a province of equality between adult females and work forces is mak ing a province of humanity.[ 2 ] Recently adult females had entered the work market in an unprecedented manner, adult females are educated, intelligent and have the ability and capableness to take and do the right determinations whether at a managerial station or a domestic 1. It is a great loss for the company non to take full advantage of our female co-workers capablenesss and accomplishments for it is considered cachexia of resources, hence our company s direction is perpetrating a great error baring adult females from busying high managerial places and facilitates their calling promotion, and no demand to advert the de-motivated moral and feeling of favoritism among themselves. There are great obstructions that prevent female co-workers from giving their extreme attempt and dedication towards the work topographic point. Part of the chief obstructions is the working environment and the company s internal policies. Womans should be allowed and assisted in making a balance point between their private life and its demands and carry throughing work duties in an effectual mode. Achieving gender equality increases our company s productiveness on one manus, and on the other improves the household public assistance of our female co-workers. We should disperse the glass ceiling which the company accidentally puts through presenting new regulations and policies and give them entree to resources that would weave their manner to make managerial places if anyone of them proves to merit it. We, as the direction squad of this company, should non restrict the entree to information and resources to any of our staff and collar the chance of calling development, this will give economic and societal benefits both employees every bit good the employer and if non both will lose ; the company will happen itself unable to last the progressively heterogenous market. Our company s organisational construction in its current format prevents adult females from making top professional places. Why Gender Mainstreaming? We, as a baronial company, should advance our staff s societal justness through set uping a more gender balance policies so as to be in line with the human rights Torahs, states labour criterions and non to be accused of being male biased. Women s productiveness is recognized and we should profit from their accomplishments and endowments through giving them more infinite to move and to turn out, through their capablenesss, that they deserve our trust to busy senior places. From the point of position of the International Labor Organization ( hereafter ILO ) , as mentioned by Baboun ( personal communicating, September 25, 2009 ) , there are two wide principles for seeking to accomplish the end of gender mainstreaming, both adult females and work forces should bask equal intervention and the judgement should be based on public presentation and non on sex footing, and we can accomplish democracy and justness through riddance of de facto and de jure favoritism on the footing of employee s sex. Baboun ( personal communicating, September 25, 2009 ) adds that we have to protect the employees societal justness through guaranting gender equality in this company and aid in poorness relief through supplying professional preparation for our staff and particularly for adult females and advance their on the job conditions, and this procedure would be more fruitful if we involved adult females when redeveloping our labour policies that tackles gender equality and aut horization.[ 3 ] All employees, adult females and work forces, should non execute different sorts of occupations on the footing of their sex but instead based on accomplishments, endowment and experience. We need to measure the demands of work forces and adult females in the company so as to emphasis on some of our policies and/or present new policies that enable all employees to accomplish self satisfaction and decent and healthy work environment. As ILO recommend, we should include gender mainstreaming in our institutional scheme to give equal chances and rights to work forces and adult females.[ 4 ]Mainstreaming involves more than increasing adult females s engagement, it places the gender equality affairs at the Centre of policy determinations and programme budgets, and institutional constructions and procedures which can advance the regard and grasp for adult females s difficult work.[ 5 ] Suggestions to accomplish gender mainstreaming We can get the better of some of the gender mainstreaming barriers by presenting gender consciousness preparation for all employees and aided by developing gender consciousness positive policies and integrating gender aims into planning and execution processs ; and to procure this policy we have to put a system of answerability. Razvi et Al ( 1995, p.7 ) emphasizes that puting the aim of de-institutionalize male prejudice should be done through presenting gender guidelines, checklists and ratings signifiers so as to do it hard for staff members to ignore adult females s involvements in their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities.[ 6 ]We can help in accomplishing this aim by set uping a little unit to advance equality and to detect the advancement of gender authorization. We have to earnestly see following some steps and policies that empower both work forces and adult females and accomplish gender equality through guaranting equality of intervention and chances of employment and encouraging adult females to use for vacant stations and leting the publicity of internally hired adult females on the footing of equal wage and calling development without negatively affect their professional and personal societal life balance. All employees should be encouraged to take part in determination devising and to be evaluated and promoted based on their occupation public presentations regardless their sex, colour or nationality. Besides, we have to vouch pregnancy benefits through presenting pregnancy benefits as the right to hard currency benefits during absence for pregnancy and female parent s right to daily interruptions or day-to-day decrease of working hours to suckle her kid.[ 7 ] As senior directors, we have the capableness to better the adult females s working environment and to put policies that enables the adult females to be treated reasonably and on equal footing as work forces. Redood ( 1996, p.1 ) emphasizes that the universe has changed to the better in respect to the intervention of adult females in general, and at their work topographic points specifically, and its our bend to accommodate and advance the public assistance of our adult females s co-workers. Her seven recommendations to relieve gender favoritism include:[ 8 ] 1 ) On traveling seeable communicating by senior direction, the president of this company, and guarantee your committedness to workforce diverseness which will hike the employees motive and dedication to our company and can vouch full use of their endowments and capablenesss. This should be an built-in portion of our concern strategic program. 2 ) Division directors should be held accountable for accomplishing gender mainstreaming end and subject a monthly advancement study, and from our side we have to reserve portion of our budget that enables them to carry on preparation Sessionss and workshops or any other activity which helps accomplishing this nonsubjective such as accomplishment wagess. 3 ) All employees should hold entree to relevant information and resources that help them to take the company a measure frontward in recognizing gender equality and better workplace atmosphere. 4 ) We have to guarantee that the agencies of calling promotion and publicities is non male biased but instead to 1s who deserve it based on their one-year public presentation rating. By this we block publicities based on personal penchants or advancing unqualified people. 5 ) We can alter our traditional recruiting system by seeking out talented campaigners from inside or outside the company by looking at adult females s colleges and universities or caput hunting. 6 ) We have to place the accomplishment and cognition standards for promotion and supply rotational occupation assignments that extend the employee s experience and visibleness and to hold an expert to tutor them. 7 ) Family friendly policies improve productiveness and cut down costs by alleviating workers of non-job related concerns and let them to concentrate on concern aims. In add-on to the above the Secretary General s communicating on gender mainstreaming on 13 October 1997 suggested that within each country of duty gender differences should be taken into history and should publish analytical studies and recommendations on policies and operational executings to guarantee accomplishing our aim. Analytic studies must bespeak gender analysis, sex-disaggregation of informations and studies. When fixing the one-year budget, it should explicitly apportion some fiscal resources to implement gender equality activities.[ 9 ] On top of the above points the ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific ( ROAP ) suggested extra processs to advance gender equality at work. The ILO suggest action programs such as disaggregating informations by sex and reexamine the demands of all staff, work forces and adult females, through transporting out a gender analysis, so measure the impact of action on adult females and work forces and place possible disparities between the place of work forces and adult females. Provision of equal opportunities and chances to all, and transporting out gender-specific action, aiming adult females entirely, work forces entirely, or adult females and work forces together with a position to right bing gender inequalities and favoritism. The promotion of adult females is a necessary scheme whenever they are in a deprived place as compared to work forces, because handling everybody equal in a state of affairs of inequality will non tip the balance towards more equality. We have to increase adult females s engagement in programmes and determination devising so as to give adult females a voice and the direction hearing ears, to guarantee that their involvements and positions are taken into history in development work.[ 10 ] No sum of advisors, gender mainstreaming schemes, and gender preparation workshops can convert staff to mainstream gender if accomplishing gender equality is non a clear end set out in their strategic program.[ 11 ]To implement the gender mainstreaming we have to modify our mission statement to conform to the overall company s cause and our gender equality and equity objective. A monitoring system should be put in topographic point to measure our success or failure in run intoing our aim within a clip scope and to come up with recommendations, suggestions and disciplinary actions. Within this clip, staff members should hold comprehended why gender mainstreaming is indispensable for the company every bit good as for all. Excellent managerial leading accomplishments are the corner rock of this procedure, in the first phases direction should hold a stopping point and critical oculus on how things are traveling and to respond immediately to any malfunction or break to the procedure. Men staff members should be empowered every bit good to understand that adult females s function in the company is indispensable and should work with their female co-workers based on this apprehension. The company s manus book should include policies that are gender sensitive and protect gender demands for all employees, for illustration our company, to the extent possible, should make its purchases from other companies and/or providers that enhance gender equality and equity ; by making so we encourage others to follow gender mainstreaming and utilize it as recommending to such a baronial cause. We can profit from Oxfam GB experience on how to advance staff consciousness to gender equality. Oxfam GB used different sorts of protagonism stuffs such as Cadmiums of larning stuffs ; electronic essay exchanges ; series of one-day seminars ; electronic arguments and treatments and other proposed agencies of larning were: a registry of local beginnings of gender preparation ; support for staff to go to preparation classs ; cusps with cardinal information about how to mainstream gender ; sharing a list of utile Internet links and bibliographies ; exchanges with academic staff ; coaction with doctorial pupils who wish to implement participative research.[ 12 ]Staff approached with these types of educational stuff will certainly be affected and by clip will be more gender sensitive if non advocators. Differentiate between formal and substantial equality Though we need to accomplish equality between adult females and work forces staff members, we should be careful non to fall in the trap of ignorance and non to distinguish between the formal or substantial equality when puting our policies to accomplish our gender mainstreaming end. As defined by United Nation Development Fund for Women ( hereafter UNIFEM ) , Formal equality is the signifier of equality that work forces and adult females are treated every bit and under the same set of criterions. This type of equality does nt take into history the unsimilarities between adult females and work forces, as the biological apparatus. For illustration, though we want to accomplish gender equality between all staff members, it is non possible to inquire adult females to work dark displacements because it is insecure and awkward for adult females to go entirely at dark ; on the contrary to what we aim, this sort of policy will widen the spread in gender equality and non bridge it. A protectionist policy should be introduced to back up adult females from being asked to make certain undertakings that may do them injury. However, the Substantive equality, UNIFEM farther explain, means that adult females and work forces should hold equal entree and equal benefits. We should look on how and why both sexes are treated otherwise and through a disciplinary attack set up policies and processs to forestall such favoritisms.[ 13 ] Possible jobs or limitations that might impede the procedure The female parent of all limitation would be the organisation s denial to accept presenting gender mainstreaming as built-in portion in its authorization and chorus from taking active processs in accomplishing gender equality. Staff members, as Whitbread ( 2004, p.42 ) argues, should be acquainted with the relevancy of gender mainstreaming to their work and the organisation s prosperity and how it helps in cut downing unneeded struggles between staff members.[ 14 ]We should be sensitive to other bing obstructions that will decelerate down or even forestall the company s accomplishment of gender mainstreaming. Hunt ( 2004, p.87 )[ 15 ]assures that Both adult females and work forces can non profit from this procedure if a deficiency in answerability to gender equality policy exists. Failure to prioritise gender equality aims in our programmes due to laden direction docket. Insufficient policy committednesss, inefficient direction tools and systems consequences in failure in gender mainstreaming execution and rating procedures. Missing the cognition and preparation about gender equality constructs and aims. Harmonizing to Howard ( 2002, p.169 ) , one of the major restraints is related to the absence of airing of gender information and sensitiveness to gender issues among our staff. Decision It for a great importance and benefit is the gender mainstreaming when introduced and go a dispensable portion of any organisation s policy. It develops staff members to handle and look at each other in a different oculus, an oculus that does non know apart between sexes or colour, expression at each other in a pure oculus. The bulk of staff work eight hours a twenty-four hours, five yearss a hebdomad, it is a batch of clip infinite the organisation can utilize to work on mending impaired outlooks and explicate them through educational Sessionss, educational stuffs and developing the importance of being gender oriented for them selves every bit good for the organisation and the environing people inside and outside the work topographic point. Without the direction committedness and sincere attempts to implement gender equity and equality this righteous aim will neglect to predominate, and we will still had to bear agony as a consequence of promoting favoritism between work forces and adult females between our forces. As pointed out in the debut, the demand to incorporate gender concerns into all facets of the organisation s precedences and processs and to do gender concerns the duty of all in an organisation. Women should be approached to manage duties the same as we do with work forces, work forces are non born holding superior accomplishments and but instead it was gained by pattern and experience, and we should supply adult females with chances to derive experience and so w could feel no difference between adult females and work forces. There is a demand for giving human resources, even on a portion clip footing, supported by sufficient fiscal resources to take this great human-centered cause on their shoulders manus by manus with all stakeholders to accomplish this baronial end. Gender human resource squad should hold the endowment and accomplishments to present this new babe policy to our staff and all, with the encouragement and support of the direction, have to assist in raising it. There are many obstructions and challenges that adult females need to get the better of until they reach to a point to be treated every bit with work forces, decidedly it would be really difficult and cumbrous and requires a batch of forfeit but Oklahoman or subsequently they will make their purpose because of one factor, justness. We have to back up their cause and promote the favoritism against them through leting and giving them the entree to resources and information as arms to contend the unfairness they are populating in for many old ages. There is no such rapture than the rapture of assisting others to populate in a peace and harmoniousness. Gender favoritism is non portion of our nature but instead created by the patriarchal system that we are populating in. Womans differ from work forces merely in he biological formation nil else and rationally this non a noteworthy footing for striping adult females from any right, was it right to instruction, right to self finding and look and right to be treated as human being. Who among us will non support his female parent s right to be self respected, or right to be treated in self-respect, who can state that Saint Mary the virgin is an ignoble human being.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Acc 422 final exams Essay Example for Free (#422)

Acc 422 final exams Essay ? 1) Which of the following is NOT considered cash for financial reporting purposes? 2) What is the preferable presentation of accounts receivable from officers, employees, or affiliated companies on a balance sheet? 3) Which of the following is considered cash? 4) If a company employs the gross method of recording accounts receivable from customers, then sales discounts taken should be reported as 5) Assuming that the ideal measure of short-term receivables in the balance sheet is the discounted value of the cash to be received in the future, failure to follow this practice usually does NOT make the balance sheet misleading because 6) Which of the following methods of determining annual bad debt expense best achieves the matching concept? 7) The accountant for the Orion Sales Company is preparing the income statement for 2007 and the balance sheet at December 31, 2007. Orion uses the periodic inventory system. The January 1, 2007 merchandise inventory balance will appear 8) Eller Co. received merchandise on consignment. As of January 31, Eller included the goods in inventory, but did NOT record the transaction. The effect of this on its financial statements for January 31 would be 9. If the beginning inventory for 2006 is overstated, the effects of this error on cost of goods sold for 2006, net income for 2006, and assets at December 31, 2007, respectively, are 10) Assuming no beginning inventory, what can be said about the trend of inventory prices if cost of goods sold computed when inventory is valued using the FIFO method exceeds cost of goods sold when inventory is valued using the LIFO method? 11) Which method of inventory pricing best approximates specific identification of the actual flow of costs and units in most manufacturing situations? 12) All of the following costs should be charged against revenue in the period in which costs are incurred EXCEPT for 13) In no case can â€Å"market† in the lower-of-cost-or-market rule be more than 14) When the direct method is used to record inventory at market 15) An item of inventory purchased this period for $15.00 has been incorrectly written down to its current replacement cost of $10.00. It sells during the following period for $30.00, its normal selling price, with disposal costs of $3.00 and normal profit of $12.00. Which of the following statements is NOT true? 16) The retail inventory method is based on the assumption that the 17) A major advantage of the retail inventory method is that it 18) In 2006, Lucas Manufacturing signed a contract with a supplier to purchase raw materials in 2007 for $700,000. Before the December 31, 2006 balance sheet date, the market price for these materials dropped to $510,000. The journal entry to record this situation at December 31, 2006 will result in a credit that should be reported 19) The cost of land typically includes the purchase price and all of the following costs EXCEPT 20) Cotton Hotel Corporation recently purchased Holiday Hotel and the land on which it is located with the plan to tear down the Holiday Hotel and build a new luxury hotel on the site. The cost of the Holiday Hotel should be 21) If a corporation purchases a lot and building and subsequently tears down the building and uses the property as a parking lot, the proper accounting treatment of the cost of the building would depend on 22) The period of time during which interest must be capitalized ends w hen 23) Which of the following assets do NOT qualify for capitalization of interest costs incurred during construction of the assets? 24) When computing the amount of interest cost to be capitalized, the concept of â€Å"avoidable interest† refers to 25) The King-Kong Corporation exchanges one plant asset for a similar plant asset and gives cash in the exchange. The exchange is NOT expected to cause a material change in the future cash flows for either entity. If a gain on the disposal of the old asset is indicated, the gain will 26) When a plant asset is acquired by issuance of common stock, the cost of the plant asset is properly measured by the 27) The cost of a nonmonetary asset acquired in exchange for another nonmonetary asset and the exchange has commercial substance is usually recorded at 28) Which of the following principles best describes the conceptual rationale for the methods of matching depreciation expense with revenues? 29) If an industrial firm uses the units-of-production method for computing depreciation on its only plant asset, factory machinery, the credit to accumulated depreciation fro m period to period during the life of the firm will 30) Which of the following most accurately reflects the concept of depreciation as used in accounting? 31) Prentice Company purchased a depreciable asset for $200,000. The estimated salvage value is $20,000, and the estimated useful life is 10 years. The straight-line method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation base of this asset? 32) Harrison Company purchased a depreciable asset for $100,000. The estimated salvage value is $10,000, and the estimated useful life is 10 years. The straight-line method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation base of this asset? 33) Starr Company purchased a depreciable asset for $150,000. The estimated salvage value is $10,000, and the estimated useful life is 8 years. The double-declining balance method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation expense for the second year on this asset? 34) Costs incurred internally to create intangibles are 35) Factors considered in determining an intangible asset’s useful life include all of the following EXCEPT 36) The cost of purchasing patent rights for a product that might otherwise have seriously competed with one of the purchaser’s patented products should be 37) Malrom Manufacturing Company acquired a patent on a manufacturing process on January 1, 2006 for $10,000,000. It was expected to have a 10 year life and no residual value. Malrom uses straight-line amortization for patents. On December 31, 2007, the expected future cash flows expected from the patent were expected to be $800,000 per year for the next eight years. The present value of these cash flows, discounted at Malrom’s market interest rate, is $4,800,000. At what amount should the patent be carried on the December 31, 2007 balance sheet? 38) Mining Company acquired a patent on an oil extraction technique on January 1, 2006 for $5,000,000. It was expected to have a 10 year life and no residual va lue. Mining uses straight-line amortization for patents. On December 31, 2007, the expected future cash flows expected from the patent were expected to be $600,000 per year for the next eight years. The present value of these cash flows, discounted at Mining’s market interest rate, is $2,800,000. At what amount should the patent be carried on the December 31, 2007 balance sheet? 39) General Products Company bought Special Products Division in 2006 and appropriately booked $250,000 of goodwill related to the purchase. On December 31, 2007, the fair value of Special Products Division is $2,000,000 and it is carried on General Product’s books for a total of $1,700,000, including the goodwill. An analysis of Special Products Division’s assets indicates that goodwill of $200,000 exists on December 31, 2007. What goodwill impairment should be recognized by General Products in 2007? 40) The intangible asset goodwill may be 41) The reason goodwill is sometimes referred to as a master valuation account is because 42) Goodwill 43) If a short-term obligation is excluded from current liabilities because of refinancing, the footnote to the financial statements describing this event should include all of the following information EXCEPT 44) Stock dividends distributable should be classified on the 45) Which of the following items is a current liability? 46) A company offers a cash rebate of $1 on each $4 package of light bulbs sold during 2007. Historically, 10% of customers mail in the rebate form. During 2007, 4,000,000 packages of light bulbs are sold, and 140,000 $1 rebates are mailed to customers. What is the rebate expense and liability, respectively, shown on the 2007 financial statements dated December 31? 47) A company offers a cash rebate of $1 on each $4 package of batteries sold during 2007. Historically, 10% of customers mail in the rebate form. During 2007, 6,000,000 packages of batteries are sold, and 210,000 $1 rebates are mailed to customers. What is the rebate expense and liability, respectively, shown on the 2007 financial statements dated December 31? 48) A company buys an oil rig for $1,000,000 on January 1, 2007. The life of the rig is 10 years and the expected cost to dismantle the rig at the end of 10 years is $200,000 (present value at 10% is $77,110). 10% is an appropriate interest rate for this company. What expense should be recorded for 2007 as a result of these events? 49) A contingency can be accrued when 50) Mark Ward is a farmer who owns land which borders on the right-of-way of the Northern Railroad. On August 10, 2007, due to the admitted negligence of the Railroad, hay on the farm was set on fire and burned. Ward had had a dispute with the Railroad for several years concerning the ownership of a small parcel of land. The representative of the Railroad has offered to assign any rights which the Railroad may have in the land to Ward in exchange for a release of his right to reimbursement for the loss he has sustained from the fire. Ward appears inclined to accept the Railroad’s offer. The Railroad’s 2007 financial statements should include the following related to the incident: 51) Which of the following contingencies need NOT be disclosed in the financial statements or the notes thereto? 52) The covenants and other terms of the agreement between the issuer of bonds and the lender are set forth in the 53) If bonds are issued initially at a premium and the effective-interest method of amortization is used, interest expense in the earlier years will be 54) Bonds that pay no interest unless the issuing company is profitable are called 55) Minimum lease payments may include a 56) An essential element of a lease conveyance is that the 57) While only certain leases are currently accounted for as a sale or purchase, there is theoretic justification for considering all leases to be sales or purchases. The principal reason that supports this idea is that 58) In the earlier years of a lease, from the lessee’s perspective, the use of the 59) In a lease that is appropriately recorded as a direct-financing lease by the lessor, unearned income 60) In order to properly record a direct-financing lease, the lessor needs to know how to calculate the lease receivable. The lease receivable in a direct-financing lease is best defined as Acc 422 final exams. (2016, Apr 13).

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Organizations' strategies Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Organizations' strategies - Assignment Example This paper presents a case study exploration of the elements of real organizational change interventions based on the context of the six key qualities of a good leader. It provides an analysis of how leadership and management can influence the occurrence of â€Å"resistance to change† through creating authentic and open lines of communication within today’s complex organizations (Gardner, 2006). The case study focuses on today’s aggressive banking industry, exploring the leadership competencies Main Street Bank has demonstrated in its efforts to remain prosperous in a volatile and continually changing external environment. While customers are constantly reevaluating how to handle the economic challenges and opportunities in their lives, banks are evaluating new ways they can provide better support and services for their customers and communities. This situation has created a necessity to think about reorganizing the organizations’ structure and assess the need to effect changes in strategies and design approaches. This paper explores the steps followed at each level by organizations to implement these changes to address customer concerns effectively and preserve vision while keeping an excellent relationship with followers. Main Street Bank asked thousands of their customers what they wanted in a bank account. The answer was, â€Å"Simplicity† through open and transparent rules, accounts with no surprises or unreasonable fees, and products in which they understand the true value. This prompted the institution to make changes by giving its customers a review that shifts their thoughts using real changes that influence their thinking. (Kotter & Cohen, 2002). In this scenario, the bank was able to maintain consistency with its vision, pay attention to customers and employees, admit mistakes, and make suitable decisions while displaying a good understanding of the business and integrity. The bank demonstrated both ability to liste n to customers by conducting a research in which they presented their customers with several sets of product choices, with different combinations of features, benefits, price points, and ways to earn out of fees. The findings of the research indicated that customers do not need a long list of account benefits alone; instead they want straightforward account features where they see the true value, such as identity theft protection. Main Street Bank also found out that customers are willing to pay for the convenience of banking with a bank offering online bill payment, mobile banking and an extensive ATM and branch network. Customers preferred a single up-front monthly fee rather than separate per-usage fees and wanted the ability to earn out of fees in various ways. The input from the customers was able to show â€Å"others the need for change with a compelling object that they can actually see, touch, and feel† (Kotter & Cohen, 2002). The decisive quality of a good leader is display by Main Street Bank through the decisions it took to address customer needs. First, the bank decided to simplify the fee structure by eliminating the daily overdraft fees and â€Å"per-transaction† fees for excessive withdrawals from a savings account. It also created a lineup of core checking and savings accounts that include basic, clear monthly service charges, with opportunities to reduce or waive the service charge based on a customer’s direct deposit, minimum monthly balance, and overall relationship with the bank. This was meant to capture the full range of their customers’ banking needs and enable them choose what is right for them. These decisions display good understanding of the business which is another key quality of a good leader. The way the business operates also shows understanding of