Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Pestel and Porters Tesco

PESTEL provides an analysis into the external business factors which may effect the company performances. It can be used on a daily, weekly, monthly and yearly basis to analysis the macro environmental effects on a company. POLITICAL-EU Free trading laws promoting trade between western and eastern European resulting in expansion of tesco retail outlets ECONOMIC-Economic recession has affected consumers buying behaviors. Consumers buy essential commodities however the demand for luxury has decreased.Consumers spend less time eating out and spend more time eating in, in order to cut down on cost. SOCIAL-The majority of the uk population is made up of retired people who spend less on food and eat less. Consumer attitude changing to become more healthy. Increase in demand for organic foods. Increase in UK ethnicity population has lead to a wide range of food items available in store TECHNOLOGICAL-Increase in population access to internet has caused an increase in Online grocery shopping. Loyaty programs has enabled tesco to analyze consumers spending habits.Mobile technology allowing convenient shopping on mobile devices. Self service tills makes buying quicker for customers ENVIRONMENTAL-Incentives to re-use bags and be more environmentally friendly. Recycling center’s available at tescos. Carbon foot print data available on some products. Greener living scheme which advices customers on environmental issues such as how to reduce food waste and carbon foot print when preparing meals LEGAL-Increase in VAT rate will affect the non-food sector of tescos. Increase of minimum wage of over 21s (from 6. 08 to 6. 9) impacts operating costs. PORTERS 5 forces allows the analysis of the competitive environment. SUBSTITUTE of PRODUCTS and services-Low threat of substitute for food products as tescos provides quality goods at low prices Substitutes- indirect- pubs offering food, local marketss or shops, on line suppliers New COMPETITORS – Low rate of competition from new entrants into the market because it takes a huge investment and a new business pathway to capture customers however lidl, aldi have come in to the market capturing a new market with lower prices.Marks and spencer offer food at the high end of the market Old COMPETITORS – High rate of competition from other food retail stores such as asda, Morrison, Sainsbury’s and waitros in the form of price, promotions and retaining customer loyalty. Competitors Sainsbury etc compete as a traditional competitor for market share BARGINING POWER OF BUYERS High bargaining powers of buyers in the supermarkets, high.We have lots of choice as to where we shop. Tesco have to keep on their toes to be competitive. When I take the DLR to work however the buyer has no power, no choice, so prices go up BARGINING POWERS OF SUPPLIERS – suppliers to supermarkets have little power and get squeezed by the big boys. they have to supply at a lower price, will not get paid by tesco until it suits tesco.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

The Simplicity of Raymond Chandler’s the Big Sleep

Raymond Chandler would like us to believe that The Big Sleep is just another example of hard-boiled detective fiction. He would like readers to see Philip Marlowe, Vivian Regan, Carmen Sternwood, Eddie Mars, and the rest of the characters as either â€Å"good guys† or â€Å"bad guys† with no deeper meaning or symbolism to them. I found the book simple and easy to understand; the problem was that it was too easy, too simple. Then came one part that totally stood out from the rest of the book &emdash; the chessboard. Marlowe toyed with it whenever he got the chance, and it probably helped him think of a next move in a particular case. I found it odd that Chandler made such a brief mention of chess, but I did not realize why until I finished the book and had time to think about what I had read. In a very interesting sense, the entire novel resembles the game of chess. Each character is a piece, and the name of the game is survival. Though the ultimate goal in chess is to take possession of the king, the underlying strategy is to eliminate as many pieces as one possibly can. This serves as insurance in the overall goal. Being that the characters/pieces determine the direction of the goal, let us look at them to begin. I have chosen to examine two characters in-depth and then put them on the board with the rest of the people in the novel. Philip Marlowe does not correspond to the knight of the chessboard. Chandler assumes that the reader will fall into the easy trap of assigning Marlowe to the role of the knight. After all, he is the main man in the novel, the one who needs to solve the case. His self-description in the opening chapter lures the reader into believing he is a typical white knight hero. â€Å"I was neat, clean, shaved and sober, and I didn't care who knew it. I was everything the well-dressed private detective ought to be† (3). This is a fitting description of a knight only because knights must possess similar qualities in order to be heroes. The main idea here is goodness, and Marlowe's description exudes this goodness. However, as we progress throughout the novel, his â€Å"goodness† mutates into something with more of an edge on it. By the end of chapter eight, Marlowe goes â€Å"to bed full of whiskey and frustration† (42) and, the next day (chapter nine), wakes up â€Å"with a motorman's glove in my mouth† (43). It is safe to say Marlowe's sobriety is questionable, especially when he tells Bernie Ohls – and us – that, â€Å"I've got a hangover† (43). Is this the action of a knight? I do not think so. Similarly, his attitude towards everyone else in the novel detracts from his knighthood. For example, look at his treatment of Vivian Regan, who I will talk about a little later. They are talking for the first time and she tells him how cold-blooded a beast he is. â€Å"‘Or shall I call you Phil? ‘ ‘Sure. ‘ ‘You can call me Vivian. ‘ ‘Thanks, Mrs. Regan. ‘ ‘Oh, go to hell Marlowe'† (61). More of the same follows with other characters; in each instance, Marlowe does not exhibit any gentleman-like qualities that a private eye should exhibit. So, if Marlowe is not the knight on the chessboard, what is he? I believe that he is more of a rook or a bishop piece and not a knight. When we think about the knight on a chessboard, it has a good amount of flexibility but limited movement. However, a rook or a bishop can move as far as it wants to move, even if the directions are not many. Movement is important to Marlowe because he thrives on getting his task done. This requires a great deal of movement on his part. This movement includes our next subject, Vivian Regan. A funny thing happened when I was writing up the previous conversation between Marlowe and Vivian. Instead of typing â€Å"Mrs. Regan†, I typed â€Å"Mrs. Marlowe† instead. I do not attribute that to a simple lapse in thinking, but more to the fact that Vivian is similar in manner to Marlowe; they could easily be mistaken for a married couple. Vivian possesses the same sharp tongue, the same penchant for drinking, and other Marlowe-esque qualities. For example, there is the part where she is gambling in Eddie Mars' casino and makes a bet that the house cannot cover. â€Å"‘What kind of cheap outfit is this, I'd like to know. Get busy and spin that wheel, highpockets. I want one more play and I'm playing table stakes. You take it away fast enough I've noticed, but when it comes to dishing it out you start to whine'† (138). That sounds like the language Philip Marlowe might use if he ran into a similar situation. Even after he foils a would-be robber in the parking lot, she still shows little signs of thanks. ‘Nice work, Marlowe. Are you my bodyguard now? ‘† (143). Vivian complements Marlowe perfectly, but is she a rook/bishop on the chessboard in the novel? Yes, but provided that Marlowe is not the same piece as she is. In other words, if Marlowe is the rook, then Vivian is the bishop, and vice-versa. I do not see Marlowe and Vivian as cohesive as Chandler might want us to believe; nonetheless, they do possess similar qualities. After talking about two of the more prominent characters, it is time to devise a chessboard strategy that makes some kind of sense. I mentioned earlier that the point in chess is to capture the king, but another goal includes getting other pieces out of the way first. If I were to assign sides, I would put people like Eddie Mars, Joe Brody, and Carmen Sternwood on a different side than Marlowe, Vivian, and General Sternwood. Why? The first group – while giving Marlowe some kind of help – is more concerned with their own safety, and individuals are not afraid to knock off anyone who messes with them. How come Carmen is included in this group? Many people would say that she is neither here nor there, but when she comes to Brody's apartment and confronts Marlowe at the very end, she shows her true colors. In addition, there is the fact that she murdered Rusty Regan because he would not jump in the sack with her. This is where the chessboard strategy begins to unfold. Chandler's style not only pertains to his simile/metaphor use and his abbreviated sentences, but also to his construction of character movement in the novel. In chess, what one piece does to another or where it moves to directly affects the movement of other pieces on the board. For example, moving my rook three spaces may not mean capturing a piece, but it does give the opponent something to consider in terms of future moves. He does not want to make a move now that would jeopardize him later. Similarly, what happens in Joe Brody's apartment affects a good amount of the characters in the novel, from Carmen to Eddie to Marlowe to Vivian, and so on. In addition, that part affects what goes on in Eddie's casino and Geiger's house. While there may not be direct influence, there is definitely an indirect sort of influence. What does this say about Chandler as an author? It says that he likes to give his readers something to look for in his novels, and that the something will not always be apparent at first. Digging up the chessboard motif would be no easy task for most readers because of its brevity in the novel. The average reader would not read this book for analysis; he or she would read the novel for pleasure. It is only because we &emdash; as English majors &emdash; are trained to look beneath the surface that I was able to put this together. This also says something about the world that Chandler lived in. His was a world of thinking about the next move and being cautious about what one did, which is evident in the novel. It was hard to trust anybody because everyone had selfish motives on their minds. That factor also corresponds to the chessboard in that a person might move a piece for individual reasons while not even considering the rest of his or her pieces. That might lead to consequences later. Chandler cannot warn us about keeping track of all of the moves in the story because they are unfolding as we move with Marlowe (who obviously cannot warn us, either). It is up to the reader to keep track of everything. The Big Sleep is not a novel about chess. It is about how people and events interact and relate to one another, similar to the game of chess. As I mentioned before, the characters and their individual actions ultimately had an effect on the overall strategy and goal, which for Marlowe was to find Rusty Regan. He eventually discovered the late Mr. Regan, but it was only after a series of moves on the chessboard of life.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Animal Farm by George Orwell

George Orwell is a great writer; he created books with many different qualities. Animal farms are fable, fable and satire. He made characters in the novel related to real people and historical events. Like communism, animalism is compared with Dolgotsky, compared with Joseph Stalin, Napoleon is such a fable. Animalism symbolizes communism in many ways. Animals' animal rhythms are not perfect land, wealth, poor people, everyone is equal. They all have the same number of farms. Can George Orwell's Animal Farm George Orwell's Animal Farm be just a political debate or a story by the reader? In this personal study I write an article about George Orwell's animal farm. The novel is entertaining my political debate in this process. The opening chapter introduces the revolutionary theme that dominates the entire novel, and it also introduces livestock. In the first chapter, Old Major is the central figure, letting all other animals go to the barn at night and telling the revolution, by thinki ng of happiness it becomes a pig of wise animals. George Orwell's Animal Farm Animal Farm is a small interpretation of the Russian Revolution of George Orwell, representing the Russian state using British farms. At the beginning of the book, animals are discussing their frustration with Mr. Jones of the current farmer. Mr. Jones is the owner of a manor farm, a farm where all animals live, and is representative of Russian emperor regime. The animals started talking about how to beat Mr. Jones. The views expressed by their arguments are similar to the views of organizations and people who tried to overthrow the Russian tourism government before the Russian revolution. At the George Orwell novel Animal Farm, these animals took over the farm and developed their own independent society. As it happened during the Russian Revolution in 1917. A repressive and exploitative tension between classes between George Orwell's despicable ideals and the harsh reality of socialism. In the literary wo rks of George Orwell, they accepted this treatment, so it clearly shows how these animals were Mr. Jones.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Business ethics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business ethics - Assignment Example The mid 1900 brought a remarkable change in the attitude of the people of the United States towards society and business. Towards the end of the decade, dramatic acceleration of interest towards business ethics can be found within the big corporations as well as within academia. After the World War II the United States rose to the position of a dominant economic power in the globe. Multinational corporations based in America were expanding in size and increasing in importance. The public image of the business world steadily got altered with big businesses replacing small and medium-sized businesses. Corporations progressively started to find them more subject to public scrutiny and open criticism. This led them to respond to this changing scenario by turning sincerely to the needs of the society and developing a solid impression of social responsibility. With this initiative, corporate organizations started to launch various programs encompassing their responsibility towards the soci ety. Companies began to spend considerable sum of money for advertising these programs and for the promotion of the social benefit produced by these programs (George, 2012). All companies come into business and function with a profit maximization objective. However, it is important for corporate organizations to acknowledge that this objective has to be fulfilled along with the fulfilment of the social responsibility of the organizations; this necessitates the adherence to business ethics. Although providing high returns to the company’s shareholders remains the prime objective for any business firm, the concept of business ethics advocates that these objectives cannot be achieved at the cost of moral, environmental and social considerations. A long-term business can only prosper if it successfully satisfies the needs of the other stakeholders in the society, such as employees, customers, communities and the governments. Also, long term goals of the organization can come true if its activities are sustainable and do not contradict with the requirements of the environment. Absolute and relative ethics The concepts of 'absolute' ethics and 'relative' ethics are defined with respect to morality. Theory of absolute ethics indicates that it would not alter with change in time. Therefore, absolute ethics are universal and ever-unchanging. Theory of ethics allows ethical issues to be judged with reference to the respective environment in which the theory is applied. Relative ethics is hence flexible and context specific (Spencer, 2010). According to some experts, in the real world, there is no such existence of the concept of absolute ethics (Francis and Mishra, 2009). Ethics reveal the characteristics of an individual and therefore the ethical considerations of a firm reflect the characteristics of the firm, which is actually a collection of several individuals. Since ethical inquiry seeks justification of the actions of the firm’s actions, and because every action has an outcome that are often found to be varied in varied environments, business ethics is relative in nature (Agalgatti and Krishna, 2007). It is important

Midterm Exam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Midterm Exam - Essay Example It led to a hostile response to certain policies and the intent reaction against the reform enthusiasm of the Progressive Era. Diplomats and Politicians argued in reference to the peace treaties and the entry of America in the League of Nations, which at the point did not work due to the isolationist opinion that had dominated (Norton 623). On the other hand, the progressive era in America was dominated by reforms in politics and social activism. Its main agenda was to purify the government by bringing to light those political figures that were involved in major corruption. Through this era, there were major reforms in the government, finance, industry and other areas. For example, there was the ‘nineteenth Amendment of 1920 that guaranteed female suffrage a reform that was essential in ensuring that enough votes had been consolidated from them especially then that women had been allowed to vote in all the 48 states. (Norton 624) Essentially, around 1919, there were chief strik es in the meatpacking and steel industries and large –scale race riots that were witnessed in Chicago and other cities. Wall streets had terrorist attacks, which culminated to fears of radicals and terrorists. For example, the community of German and the Irish Catholic community were disappointed in the foreign policy that had been brought up by the democratic president Wilson leading to a critical weakening of his political position especially after he was said to have suffered from a severe stroke. Thus, it was evident that the presidential elections came as a referendum that was meant to go against the progressive era, which basically fought for the right on most of the citizens in America (Norton 625). In 1920 many Americans were exhausted of war, and the constant attempts to have reforms including the passing of moral legislation. It is at about this time that Harding came up with a policy of returning things to normalcy, which he attempted to capitalize on so as to curb the feelings of the populist. Essay Two Explain in detail the differences between President Franklin Roosevelt’s First and Second Newdeals. What did each focus on and why or why not do you feel they were successful? During the campaigns for the presidency, Franklin .D. Roosevelt promised the people of the United States of America ‘New Deal’ due to the economic depression that was witnessed. Hence, there was a dire need to end the depression as the most important political issue. As soon as he was voted in as a democrat Roosevelt, a former governor of the New York had two deals (Norton 745). The first new deal was the reverse of the financial system of America, institute relief programs, as well as, the crisis that had been witnessed in agriculture and industry. Essentially, the Democratic Party under the leadership of Roosevelt provided relief food for the poor, and gave a balance to the traditional policies of the federal budget, supported the gold standard and led to the reduction of the size of the government. This new deal was successful because it gave direct payment to the poor and unemployed, and there was the revival of manufacturing which contributed to the end of the depression (Norton 746). The second new deal was dominated by the continuation of the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Cango Third Analysis Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Cango Third Analysis Report - Essay Example Performance appraisals are often done by the company in regards to motivating the employees to engage, align and act in proper synchronization with regards to the company’s goals and objectives (Grubb, 2007, p. 2). The subjective measure of performance takes into account, the various influencing factors that can affect an employee’s performance. But at the same time, since they are dependent on human judgments rather than judged from the objective point of view, there is a tendency of errors. The reason for the errors can be mostly attributed to the human’s ability of judging an employee’s capability and performance (Jones, Steffy & Bray, 1991, p. 307). It can be clearly seen from the transcripts that Clark has confessed to the fact that he is having a serious problem of evaluating his subordinates on the basis of their performance while following the company’s normal scale of subjective performance evaluation. It is quite evident that while evaluating his team members, Clark is making errors related to the factors of leniency. As per the transcripts, Clark prefers to recommend employees with a higher rating on their subjective type performance appraisal rather than giving them a lower rating. This clearly highlights his erroneous evaluation of performance reports, due to his lenient nature of evaluation, while providing the subordinates and team members with a benefit of doubt. Clark’s habit of providing handling performance appraisals on the basis of benefit of doubt also highlights his ability of judging his team members abilities, while using the subjective scale of performance. Clark’s Way Out There can be a number of ways in which Clark can handle this problem while still following the company’s subjective performance appraisal system. Training In an attempt to handle this problem, Clark can opt for help from fellow managers who are working at Cango. Taking this approach of seeking help will lead to an informal form of training from his colleagues, thereby making him more efficient in the handling of the performance evaluation system of the company. Better judgment Another way to tackle his existing problem is through the fact of going for a one on one interview and feedback session for his team members with regards to the targets and assignments they have achieved. This will enable him to make an informed and well justified choice, thereby removing his option of benefit of doubt, while evaluating his team members. 2. Clark’s Suggestion and Its Implication It can be commonly said that the performance management system is done with the sole aim of motivating the employees. It involves the process of defining performance of the employees with regards to the competency required to perform the specified tasks. Performance analysis is also related to the process of determining and understanding the various factors that effectively contributes to the performance of the employees as well as managing them for the purpose of developing their skills and competencies thereby converting them to highly valued resources for the company. (, p. 53) Performance management system can be either subjective or objective based in nature. Objective based performance manag

Friday, July 26, 2019

Mktg 3000 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Mktg 3000 - Essay Example The main reason behind this is the lack in market research or assuming that a single factor won’t make a lot of difference for example name , color, slogan, ingredients, advertising etc considering if the product is made right. We have numerous experiences on paper where such factors lead to failure of products or were termed in violation of local ethics. For eg famous British shoe maker UMBRO tagged as â€Å"appallingly insensitive† when it named its shoes meant for running as ZYKLON , the reason for such a response was later found out that ZYKLON was the same gas used in Nazi extermination camps. Similarly when Ford introduced PINTO in Brazil, it rather attracted quite a cold response and flopped. After research it was found that PINTO is a Brazilian slang for ‘tiny male genitals’. Later on Ford changed the name to Corcel meaning Horse. Also slogan for brands like Electrolux in America ‘ Nothing sucks like Electrolux’ and introduction of new products by brands who don’t keep the cultural difference in mind’ Coors Bear having slogan ‘keeping it loose’ in Spanish the slogan meant ‘ you’ll suffer from diarrhea’.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Border Security and the Threat of Terrorism Essay

Border Security and the Threat of Terrorism - Essay Example Views that by effectively securing its borders, amerce will have effectively assuaged the threat of terrorism by a half is rife. This view is predicated on the knowledge that money laundering, illicit drug trade, illegal immigrants and trade in other contraband products crucially depend on border security lapses and are key to terrorist activities. Background of the Study Events that surrounded and defined September 11th, 2001 totally reshaped American foreign policies, and security measures. By and by, the US government has become cognizant of the fact that strengthening its intelligence against terrorist threats would not in itself suffice. To America, for an attack of a high magnitude such as the September 11th, 2001 to occur, there must have been security lapse in border security. The veracity of this observation is clearly seen in the fact that every one of the 19 September 11th terrorist hijackers had received temporary American tourist visas and had outmaneuvered the screening department. The gravity of the matter is also seen in the fact that the Canadian border which measures 4,855 km long, the Mexican border which measures 3,111 km long and the presence of other unsecured ports leave the US vulnerable. It is against this backdrop that, America created Homeland Security in 2002 while passing and ratifying other measures that would render the airports, seaports and land borders more secure. Methodology The data that has been used in the investigation is both qualitative and quantitative. The need to use quantitative data is underscored by the fact that terrorism and border security are phenomena that can be analyzed in numeric and non-quantified manner. The reality that underpins terrorism can be expressed in quantities and may include: the number of victims and the funds that have been used in launching terrorist onslaughts and counterterrorism activities. On the other hand, the non-quantifiable aspects of border security and the national threat of ter rorism may include; the ideological difference that bifurcates and sows discord between America and proponents if Islamist ideology and the value of human life which is too sacrosanct to allow quantification. On the other hand, this paper has factored the use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data involves information that has been compiled by authorities and responsible agencies, concerning terrorism. Conversely, secondary data, referring to data that has undergone analyses and interpretation have been used, in order to widen the scope of ideas and facts that define and characterize American border security and the threat of national security to terrorism. Literature Review Steinmetz1 observes that there are other experts and authorities such as Michael Chertoff (Homeland Security secretary) who see the issue of border security and the manner in which it can avert the threat of national security as a matter that must not go unabated. Chertoff, for instance, maintains that even with the measures that the US, through Homeland Security has put in place; there will always be attempts at evading the American border security by terrorists.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Understanding Leadership Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Understanding Leadership - Assignment Example Firstly, in Exploration and Production planning a critical determinant of leadership style is the group maturity. Guenzi & Ruta (2013) describe group dynamics and ability to respond to an emergency and normal situation as a primary factor in choosing leadership style. A group that is too dependent in decision-making requires an authoritarian leadership in order to speed up the planning and execution of duties (Goleman et al., 2002). Besides, slow decision-making process due to fear of unknown and departmental lack of confidence within existing options informs the need for an autocratic leader whose words and actions allow for speedy duty execution (West 2011). In addition, leadership should be based on the study the effect of authority and counter-rebellion strategies often employed in planning departments. The best leadership should be seen to work towards the best results and not just authority exertion (Werhane 2007). In order to amalgamate the four divisions in E& P planning, leadership style adopted should be based on an already studied leadership pattern that has produced results either within the organization or even other established companies. As a core duty of a leader, the style of leadership adopted should not be experimental since planning is an enormous task that determines organizational direction (Velsor 2009). Forman & Ross (2013) identify organizational timelines of executing plans as a crucial factor to deliberate on when deciding on the appropriate leadership. For instance, in E &P planning system, the decision reached should be well-thought and based on concrete findings. It involves surveys and various studies, under such circumstances democratic leadership is ideal because it allows interrogation of facts and figures by key decision-makers. Hong et al., (2013) identifies slow pace of decisions in democratic leadership as the

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Scientific Management And Its Relevance Today Essay - 7

Scientific Management And Its Relevance Today - Essay Example Those who hold such views think that scientific management was not effective then and cannot be in the present days. This essay argues that Taylor’s scientific management system had its weaknesses, but the weakness can guide research towards making the theory more relevant to the current management realities. Scientific Management and its Relevance Today The result of years of experimentation and research that Taylor and his colleagues conducted in the scientific management theory.  The following four principles anchor the theory: Establishment of a science that would increase production; selection and training of personnel that will improve efficiency and increase production; application of the science established to tasks designed; and building of teamwork between personnel and management to realise the set targets (Cannon, 2009). These principles have continued to inform management practices since the 19th century to the modern days. There are many areas within management , industrial and organizational psychology that scientific management principles are applicable today. Scientific management principles has had the greatest impact in two management subfields of human resource and accounting management. Many organizations have implemented these ideas to cost?accounting and management of personnel (Wren, 2005). Areas were these principles are in operation today includes job design, selection, group processes, job performance criteria, organizational change and development, motivation and incentive systems, worker’s attitude and performance appraisal (Payne, et al. 2006). Examination of some general business practices and techniques is one of the means to prove this (Haden, Humphreys, Cooke & Penland, 2012). According to Wren (2011), studies conducted in recent years have shown that Taylor is the leading contributor to theoretical and practical approaches in management. Management researchers like Heames & Breland (2010) found Taylor at the top in their studies. Bedeian and Wren list Taylor’s book, The Principles of Scientific Management as the number one among the 25 most significant management books since the turn of 20th century. These studies were conducted decades after Taylor made the introduction of scientific management to the world. The result of these studies shows that scientific management principles have become an essential human resource tool for many managers. Application scientific management is apparent, for example, when a customer support representative picks a call under pressure from the 90/10 practice (regulations demanding customer support representatives to pick 90 percentage of calls and assist customers within 10 seconds). This regulation has its roots in scientific management as it is about efficiency and productiveness of personnel. Thus, scientific management is evident in such situations were machine-like accuracy is required for improved profitability (Bell & Martin, 2011). Taylorâ₠¬â„¢s experimentation on time and motion provides guidelines of how long it should take workers to perform a task. Time study reduces wasted motions and set a suitable standard of task performance (Wren, 2011). The study helps in the elimination of motions that do not add value to the organization’s production process. Time and motion sensors also assist employers to make decisions on strategies and techniques needed for efficient specialization.  

Corporate Responsibility and Marketing Strategies Essay Example for Free

Corporate Responsibility and Marketing Strategies Essay Apple corporation bases its success on â€Å"creating innovative, high quality products and services and on demonstrating integrity in every business interaction.† According to Apple, four main principles contribute to integrity: honesty, respect, confidentiality, and compliance. To more thoroughly detail these principles, Apple has drafted a code of business conduct that applies to all its operations, including operations overseas. Apple disappointed socially responsible investors. Apple has come under fire since around 2006 as details emerged surrounding the workplace environment at Apples Chinese suppliers. An article in The New York Times publicized unsatisfactory worker conditions, which included grueling 24-hour shifts, overcrowded dorms, exposure to toxic chemicals, and horrific explosions. Foxconn Technology Group operates many of the plants in question in Chengdu, China. When it comes to customers, Apple is said to be a bold innovator that leads the industry into new directions and forces others to follow. However, when it comes to the management of its supply chain and treatment of workers in the Chinese factories that make its products, Apple hides behind the constraints of prevailing industry practices. What is even more disconcerting is the fact that these practices are in violation of not only local and national laws, but also of Apples own voluntary self-imposed code of conduct. Most of Apples worker-related problems were focused on Apples manufacturing partner Foxconn and its subsidiaries. Apples China operations first caught international attention in June 2006 with a long story in Britains Mail on Sunday.1 This was followed by a series of similar stories in other leading international news media, and has continued to this day.2 Because of Foxconns secrecy, it is well-nigh impossible to develop an accurate assessment of the problems in the factories owned and operated by Foxconn and its various subsidiaries. However, a brief description of extreme conditions prevailing in these factories and widely reported in the  media gave the readers some indication of the enormity of the problems that likely to existed in those plants. Apple has audited many of its suppliers and found violations of its Supplier Code of Conduct, but requesting its suppliers improve working conditions is not as powerful as changing suppliers to ones with more humane conditions. Part of the problem is that Apple has no legal liability for what happens in Chinese factories owned by separate manufacturers. Environmental organization Greenpeace had frequently campaigned against Apple, requesting elimination of non-recyclable hardware components, the removal of toxins from iPhone hardware, and a comprehensive take-back plan to prevent Apple products from ending up as waste. Greenpeace also began a protest in 2003 against Apples use of toxic PVC plastics and brominated flame retardants, or BFRs, in Apple’s products. Apple eliminated these chemicals in 2008, becoming the first laptop maker to do so (Corporate Responsibility Spotlight: Apple, September 14, 2012.) Workers assembling iPhones, iPads and other devices often labor in harsh conditions, according to employees inside China’s plants, worker advocates and documents published by companies themselves. Problems are as varied as onerous work environments and serious — sometimes deadly — safety problems. Under-age workers have helped build Apple’s products, and the company’s suppliers have improperly disposed of hazardous waste and falsified records, according to company reports and advocacy groups that, within China, are often considered reliable, independent monitors. The suppliers demonstrated disregard for workers health. In 2010, 137 workers at an Apple supplier in eastern China were injured after the workers were said to have been ordered to use a poisonous chemical to clean iPhone screens. In 2009 two explosions at iPad factories, including in Chengdu, killed four people and injured 77. Before those blasts, Apple had been alerted to hazardous conditions inside the Chengdu plant, according to a Chinese group that published that warning (Duhigg, Charles and Barboza, David. In China, Human Costs Are Built Into an iPad, (The NewYork Times) January 25, 2 010.) The publications outlining the ethics and social responsibility violations of Apple caused more consumers to actually start to wonder where and how Apple products are manufactured. Consumers have focused on Apples remarkable products rather than how they are produced. The New York Times story on iPad working conditions, for example, generated 1,770 reader comments. Many, if not most, blasted Apple  or the overall system of cheap labor. And an online petition prompted by the This American Life piece that called for Apple to protect Chinese workers had garnered roughly 166,000 signatures—and counting. I determined that Apple’s customers would be willing to pay more for its products if Apple had to increase selling prices in order to provide better wages and benefits for suppliers’ workers. Apple seems to make people crazy, described as a cult because it has such a vociferous following.† The Secrecy Strategy† (Moltz, John., Why Apple Drives People Crazy. Macworld. Feb2013, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p100-100. 1p). Stock-market and financial analysts are known to always have had a hard time understanding Apple because Apple does not sell commodity products or chase market share at the cost of everything else. Its modus operand i is: Enter a market, stake out the high end, and scoop up all the profit. As copycats such as Samsung flood the low end, Apple continued to hold the high end by evolving and differentiating products, while looking for new markets. One key approach used is to never telegraph punches; that way, no would know which market would be remade next. Hence Apples famous veil of secrecy, which further frustrated analysts. The bottom line was that the appeal of Apples products and its business strategies were said to be inscrutable, which made the company a Rorschach test. People saw what they wanted to see, and the idea that Apples fortunes are plummeting is more appealing to many than the idea that it might continue to ride high. The appeal of Apples products and its business strategies are believed to be both inscrutable. Apple joined the FLA in 2012 following intense public attention over allegations of widespread problems at Foxconn, China’s largest private employer. The FLA said both Apple and Foxconn â€Å"have agreed to ongoing assessments by FLA in order to ensure that labor practices meet FLA standards and remain in compliance for the long term.† Current and former Apple executives, moreover, say the company had made significant strides in improving factories in recent years. Apple has a supplier code of conduct that details standards on labor issues, safety protections and other topics. The company has mounted a vigorous auditing campaign, and when abuses are discovered, Apple says, corrections are demanded. And Apple’s annual supplier responsibility reports, in many cases, are the first to report abuses. This month, for the first time, the company released a list identifying many of its suppliers. Apple has continued to be aggressive in  calling out suppliers who dont meet up to its code of conduct. In January, Apple said it had fired Pingzhou Electronics after it was found to be hiring underage workers. Apples Supplier Code of Conduct sets the minimum age for workers at 15. (Apples Labor Practices In China Scrutinized After Foxconn, Pegatron Reviews. 12/12/2013, p2-2. 1p. 1 Chart). What made Steve different from other marketers, is that he understood that his job as a marketer was not to focus on making money or sales, and, unlike other marketers, Steve’s marketing skills was seem in the way he presented his products: Here are some of the quotes that reflect Steve’s focus in business: If it could save a person’s life, could you find a way to save ten seconds off the boot time? You‘ve got to start with the customer experience and work back toward—not the other way around. Being the richest man in the cemetery doesn’t matter to me. Going to bed at night saying that they had done something wonderful is what mattered to Steve. Steve made the marketing process simple; if he gave people what they want, educated them on why they needed it, showed them how it will improve their lives, and why no other competitor’s products could compete with the convenience and ease of use of yours, customers would be willing to spend. References Apples Labor Practices In China scrutinized after Foxconn, pegatron reviews. 12/12/2013, p2-2. 1p. 1 Chart. Apple’s Marketing Strategy – Sell On Value, Not Price. Retrieved from (Duhigg, Charles and Barboza, David.( January 25, 2010). In China, human costs are built into an iPad, (The NewYork Times). Frauenheim, Ed. February 6, 2012. Bad Apple: Could the era of exploitation outsourcing be near its end? Retrieved from Kannel, Charlie, The Motley Fool (September 14, 2012) Corporate responsibility spotlight: Apple. (Daily Finance). Ira Kalb, Marshall School of Business, USC . (September 13, 2013) Apples Cheap iPhone might not be that affordable, but it does protect the brand (Business Insider). Retrieved from

Monday, July 22, 2019

Results from the Job analysis method Essay Example for Free

Results from the Job analysis method Essay Observation method allows employers to watch and judge how employees perform in their specific jobs. Supervisors or managers would have a better understanding on how the employee performs. They can decide whether the performance from the employees would need to improve or if theyre satisfied with the current progress. However, employees may feel insecure as they are being watched. It can also be time consuming and results gathered may not be accurate as the employees may change their attitude or habits towards their work. Individual interview method is the most accurate and precise form of job analysis. Understanding the job would be clearer and easier. Questions and doubts can be answered and clarified. Information can be gathered quickly and are more likely to be accurate. Group interview method is when an interview takes place in groups of three to five candidates at a time. Like individual interview method, the interviewer and interviewee can interact face to face. Interviewer can get first hand information about the candidates attitude and character. However the disadvantages of group interview is that the interviewers choice maybe bias. Diary method is time consuming compared to the other six job analysis methods. This report focuses on observation, individual and group interview method. We have chosen them because this is the best way to interview them. A job description would give job-seekers and overall idea of what will they be doing, how the job should be done, the kind of conditions they would be working in and what steps are needed to be done in a specific job. It should accurately describe the contents and environment of the job, and the conditions of employment. Such details in a job description would be the job title or position, the essential duties and tasks that are to be performed, and the characteristics of the job, environmental conditions, the authorities and responsibilities of the job-seeker. Job specification specifies the minimum qualifications that the candidate must possess in order to attain the job successfully. Based on the information gathered from the job analysis, the job specification identifies the essential knowledge, skills, education, working experience, type of certification and the abilities needed to possess by the candidate. The applicants must have these basic requirements before they can apply for the position.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Case Study of Pearson Publisher

Case Study of Pearson Publisher This assessment will address the following three question through a successful case study of Pearson publisher: The scope of the three variation models Criticize two kinds of change management theories Use the two change management tools to recommend a change plan In the human history,it has organized activitues,had the management activities.Management activities of people experience summarized,formed a series of management thought.Management scholars both at home and abroad is summarized the management theory out,reform and innovation of management is particularly important.The management change,just as its name implies is organization according to the change of enviroment inside and outside,timely in the organization and the relationship between elements of adjustment,to adapt to the requirements of the development of the organizations future.Management of innvation,innovation means to break the old order,break the balance of the original,seek s more suitable for the survival and development of organizations environment. The core of enterprise change is management change, and the success of change management comes from change management. The success rate of change is not one hundred percent, or even lower, often makes a change is dead, the same is dead, the tool. But the pressure of market competition, the frequent updates of technology and the need for their own growth, change may fail, but certainly failed. So it is more important to know how to change than to know why change and change. After all, not for the management and management of enterprises, any change management companies must have sufficient internal data and facts, get rid of these facts and data, the management is aware of the possibility of small. Companies often use questionnaires and face to face communication, collect documents, notes, conferences, seminars, etc., to understand the situation. Organizational change refers to the use of behavioral science and related management methods, the organization of the rights structure, organization size, communication channels, role setting, organization and other organizations, as well as the organization members of the concept, attitude and behavior, members of the The spirit of cooperation between the purpose of the purpose of the system to adjust and innovate to adapt to the organizations internal and external environment, technical characteristics and organizational tasks and other aspects of change, improve organizational effectiveness. The development of enterprises can not be separated from the organizational changes, changes in internal and external environment, the continuous integration of enterprise resources and changes, gave the enterprise has brought opportunities and challenges, which requires enterprises to focus on organizational change. The meaning of change management: change management that is when the organization grows slowly, internal problems arise, the more unable to cope with the changes in the business environment, companies must make organizational change strategy, the internal level, work processes and corporate culture, the necessary adjustments and Improve management, in order to achieve a smooth business transformation. In this era of knowledge economy and information technology is booming, organizational change has become a major symbol of the development of contemporary enterprises. Organizational change in a series of changes such as organizational structure, organizational business process system reengineering, modern information system into the middle of the organizational system, to the enterprise has brought unprecedented changes to the staff relationship management has also brought great changes , While employee relationship management also further promotes the development of organizational changeOrganizational change and employee relationship management only with each other, mutual coordination and promotion in order to enable enterprises to adapt to the trend of modern development, but also to the enterprise a great opportunity. This paper starts from the trend of organizational change in the era of information age and knowledge economy, analyzes the pattern and characteristics of organiza tional change, and further finds out the model and the countermeasures to be used in the management of employee relations under the environment of organizational change environment, so as to improve enterprise performance and promote The purpose of enterprise development. Enterprise organization is an open system that continually interacts with the environment in which it is outside. The external and changing environment and the increasingly fierce market competition and the inherent development of the enterprise organization are also transformed into great pressure on the organization. Enterprises to carry out a broader organizational change, and the success or failure of change is the most critical or human factors. Organizational staff can promote organizational change smoothly, but also can hinder or undermine the effectiveness of organizational change, and therefore employee relationship management in organizational change is a very important issue. The different organizational transformation models carried out by enterprises, the organizational form after organizational change, and the development trend of new organizational changes have different effects on employee relationship management. First, the organizers of corporate behavior are responsible for all change activities; secondly, regardless of whether a team is a formal department or a temporary project team, the leaderships leadership exists in different forms in the organization; and third, the leader has So that all members contribute their own strength, towards the enterprise development goals of the leadership of the charm and influence. The success of strategic change is related to internal resources and external resources. Employees use these resources to absorb knowledge and improve their skills, making organizational change easier to accept, participate, and even seek opportunities to make changes. But 70% of organizational changes ended in failure. In order to seek more effective means of organizational change, companies and employees need to change the leadership, these leaders will affect every stage of change, to promote the smooth progress of the process of change. Middlehurst thinks that the behavior of the leader is self-contained, which mainly includes the following three characteristics: first, the organizer of corporate behavior, responsible for all the change activities; second, whether a team is a formal department or temporary project team, the leader Leadership is in different forms exist in the organization; Third, the leader has to make all members of their own strength, towards the enterprise development goals of the leadership of the charm and influence. Excellent change leader characteristics:Changing the personal qualities of leaders is the key to the success of change, and a good change leader usually has the following characteristics: First, the ability to identify organizational change needs. This is the basis for the cause of change, the leadership must understand the corporate culture, recognize the gap between reality and ideals; second, management tools. Change the leadership to find the problem to explore the means to solve the problem, organize employees, to stimulate potential, encourage them to build confidence, work together to achieve the goal; third, the ability to deal with emergencies. When an emergency occurs, they can make the right decision as soon as possible to reduce the loss of the business; fourthly, the higher EQ. Change the leader to have self-confidence, doing things without fear, perseverance, good self-regulation and ability to adapt; Fifth, the change of leadership must be honest and simple, so that th e line of travel, will be fruit, to get the staff Support and recognition, so that change smoothly. Organizational change is bound to involve the interests of the relevant subject, will inevitably defame and suppress the work of change, and even some of the leadership of enterprises fear the risk of change. This requires backing with the support of the companys leading leadership, organizing a group of courageous people to carry out change work. Organizational change in the course of the process will certainly bring some negative impact, the negative impact of change is the status of the organization is not sensitive or not actively take the initiative to pay the price of the amendment, but the change in the long term, Is conducive to the healthy development of long-term business. Corporate culture is not built out, he is the most simple business philosophy with a healthy organizational business model in the process of enterprise development gradually formed. Business philosophy is the enterprise nature of things, is always abide by the faith, is the process of development of the Polaris; corporate culture is changing with the various changes in the concept of common understanding, is the success of the enterprise to the other side of the pilot. Work Cited

Saturday, July 20, 2019

European Union Description :: European Union Essays

European Union Description In 1967, three European institutions merged. The three institutions were the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). When the three merged, they formed the European Community or EC. On November 1, 1993, the 12 members of the European Community ratified the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty. The twelve members were- Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. The countries of the Benelux Economic Union- Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg- continue to and in some ways as a single economic entity within the European Union. The EC became the policy-making body of the European Union. In 1994 Austria, Finland, and Sweden became members of the European Union. By 1997 more than a dozen countries had applied for European Union membership, but the European Union had only admitted the three listed above. T he other countries that applied for membership include Turkey, Cyprus, Malta, Switzerland, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, and the Czech Republic. Of those countries, six are considered associate members of the European Union: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Three other countries-Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania-are being considered for associate membership. Other potential European Union applicants include members of the European Free Trade Association. The European Union was expected to decide which counties it would open negotiations for full membership with by the end of 1997. The purpose of the European Union was to increase economic integration and strengthen cooperation among its member states. European citizenship was granted to citizens of each member state, under the Treaty on European Union. Customs and immigration agreements were enhanced to allow European citizens more freedom to live, work, and s tudy in any of the member states, and border controls were also eased. The European Union also set a goal of establishing a single European currency, the Euro, by 1997; this date was later changed to 1999. It is proposed that full circulation of the Euro is to be in effect by the year 2002. At that time the individual states notes will no longer be valid. The European Union’s attempts to establish a single European currency have had some controversy. An example is, some member countries, such as Great Britain, have worried that a shared European currency would threaten their national identity and their government’s authority.

Will the Long Cable be Sound? The Ecological Impact of the Cross-Sound Cable :: Research Papers

Will the Long Cable be Sound? The Ecological Impact of the Cross-Sound Cable There has been an unfortunate trend in the way that people of the Western culture treat the environment. Often times there appear to be two sides to this battle being fought by extremist perspectives. On one side stand the environmentalists who in some cases seek to block any move that may harm the environment, and on the other side stand the corporate people who seek to justify both a profitable and a logistical means to benefit those involved. A current battle being fought deals with the installation and usage of the Long Island Sound Pipeline. This project raises important issues such as the economic, social, and environmental importance of the Sound, as well as the present and possible future environmental consequences of the actions taken. All too often it appears as though if a change which seems to be beneficial towards humans will â€Å"only† effect the environment and most do not believe that effect will have a direct effect on humans, then we can chalk the change up to Darwin’s theory of evolution, implying that it is natural and necessary. On the other hand, if a change in the environment might harm or cause an inconvenience for humans, but would be beneficial to the environment, then we suddenly do not want to interfere with nature. Unfortunately, even some that have the title of â€Å"environmentalists† have failed to step on the other side of this Western wall that we have built ourselves which barricades and blinds us. Many bricks that that make up this Western wall are built upon the idea that humans and nature are two separate entities, and that humans are the more significant of the two. The most frightening thing about installing the cross-sound cable is not the particular environmental consequences, but the lack of concern that many have about the consequences. Why is it Important to Preserve the Long Island Sound? The Long Island Sound is extremely important not only to the ecosystems of New York and Connecticut, but to a much larger portion of the ocean than one might imagine. One of the reasons for its extreme significance is because it is an estuary. Although some animals are permanent residents of estuaries, there are many fish and other animals that use the estuary as a safe haven to protect their young. If this area is not protected, many of these fish and other animals would die off before they were able to mature and produce offspring. If these animals are not able to reach sexual maturity, it will ultimately lead to

Friday, July 19, 2019

Emily Dickinsons My Life Had Stood:A Loaded Gun Essay -- Literature P

Emily Dickinson's My Life Had Stood:A Loaded Gun Emily Dickinson is a poet known for her cryptic, confusing language. Words are often put together in an unusual way and create deciphering difficulties for the reader. But behind all the confusion is a hidden meaning that becomes clear, and one realizes that all the odd word choices were chosen for a specific reason. The poem I will try to analyze is My Life Had Stood—A Loaded Gun, or number 754. I find this to be one of her most difficult poems to decode. However, I find the images fascinating and the last stanza very confusing but intriguing. What I first thought the poem was about and what I finally came to a conclusion on are two completely different thoughts. Through answering questions on the poem’s literary elements, thorough analysis of the words, and rewriting the poem in my own words, I came to the conclusion that the poem is about a person who was taken on a journey with someone who saw something in her that was unrealized by anyone else, and the narra tor clung to that person through their time together. First, I will take apart the poem in terms of its use of literary elements. The diction of the poem is abstract and vague, in that it’s hard for the reader to easily understand what the narrator is really talking about. Dickinson uses particular, specific words for description: for example, in stanza four, when talking about a pillow the bird Eider-Duck is mentioned. She could have just said a duck’s or goose’s feathers, but she specifically writes Eider-Duck, which I found out is a fowl known for it’s fluffy feathers (hence the appropriate connection to the pillow). Dickinson also uses the word ‘sovereign’ when talking about the woods the narrator an... ... because she was simply too shy to step out—and then one day someone noticed her for the first time and saw all she had to offer. The rest of the poem is about their journeys together and the relationship that builds between the two of them. Maybe it’s the first real relationship with the opposite gender, so she is unsure how to act, and become jealous of the other â€Å"does,† and willing to put him before herself (such as watching over him at night). As shown, Emily Dickinson’s cryptic language and literary elements make for an interesting, yet sometimes confusing, poem. Her words and ideas, mixed with her sense of rhythm and rhyme, work together to produce poetic pieces that are of the highest quality. While the meaning of this poem can be debated—and one’s opinion of the meaning can change over time and with many re-readings—it is still a fascinating piece.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Families, Transitions & Attachments Essay

A. Overview Families are interesting and challenging to both teach and research because of their variability and proposing new theories and conclusions derived from the thousands of experiences. By trying to centralize an ideology or understanding of one’s unique family, it becomes challenging to interpret or draw a universal conclusion or pattern of behavior that causes certain things throughout the other family unit. * What are the ways in which the relationship between Angela and her father has changed from childhood to adolescence? * Emotionally distant nor physically close or affectionate * Uses a different tone with her father—â€Å"silent contempt† * Envious of the mutual adoring relationship her father shares with her younger sister * â€Å"When someone compliments your parents it’s like nothing to say.† – Angela * Gives her Dad the cold shoulder and unappreciative * Quick to criticize and judge him B. Family Life Cycles 1) John Hill- described a systems perspective on adolescent development * In order to understand the changes in an adolescent, one must observe the parent changes, too * Parents are going through â€Å"middle age† — dealing with more responsibility at work, making them more stressed and distracted * Parents are facing the end of the child-bearing years * As kids reach adolescence and gains all these cognitive capacities, they become a force within the family (i.e. â€Å"a new roommate or adult moving into the family†) causing a need for adjustment, thus dramatically changing the family system 2) Beyond storm and stress * Not universal * Most adolescents do not go through this intense period of storm and stress; a good relationship with the emerging adolescent between their parent can lessen the intensity * More stressful for parent b/c they’ve invested so much time and energy into their child to then let it lead to conflict and arguments * With age and a teenager’s unlikeliness to just go along with what they’re told illicit more persistent and louder conflict (i.e. temper tantrum of an 8-year-old and a 15-year-old is completely more ‘storm and stress’ at different ages) C. Adolescent Autonomy and Relatedness (Initial Overview) 1) Seesaw Model * There needs to be a healthy balance between autonomy and relatedness (or dependence) relationship with parents and friends 2) Multi-dimensional Mode * There’s connection and individuality coexisting when the two aren’t in opposition with one another D. Goals of Attachment Theory 1) Beyond â€Å"Loving† Parents * Problem with this statement: every parents loves their children no matter the circumstances or their treatment towards them, therefore love isn’t enough 2) Everyone (almost) gets attached – Humans are hardwired to get attached to other people/mammals (due to our long period of gestation out of all the species) * Not everyone who is attached is securely attached [think of three different types of attachment and basis on the childs’ needs vs. the parents’ needs] 3) Assessment, Correlates & Predictions — Can predict popularity, success in romantic relationships, and attachment type when you have your own child

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Storm Born Chapter Twenty-Four

some(prenominal) snide comments Dorian and Maiwenn might get to, Tucson is the appearperform(p) plaza in the world to live. patronise at the desert crossroads the quest regularing, I paused a moment to on a lower floor portion kayoed in my surroundings in front intersection point oer. Dorians kingdom was certainly beautiful, solely it and wasnt the resembling. It wasnt home. A easygoing wind abbreviate finished the dry course, ruffling my hair and rustling that spring would yield to summer soon. The catch carried every(prenominal) in all in all the delicious smells of the desert, and I caught the beatific scent of mesquit non the cook out smorgasbord exclusively the piano substance emitted by its fuzzy yellow blooms. above me, the sun beat belt d save got without remorse, example the weak to get the hell out. The phaeton season tended to drop discharge with the disconnected increase in temperatures, barely I loved this quantify of year.And all more or less me, in this dry and unforgiving heat, I could get the un look inton weewee. It was in the saguaros and the cactus wrens and the mesquite trees tap roots. T here were until now detai conduct bits in the air, despite the ostensible aridness. everyplace in that location was life, at that place was peeing. Sensing it was chip nature to me at present. Calling it even so remained a challenge.Closing my eyeball, I let my sense r severally by the boundaries and send me into the Otherworld. coiffure sincerely did feed perfect with these transitions they were everyday without delay, ripe corresponding sensing water. My automobile trunk slipped through, pulled toward the corresponding thin spot airless Dorians home. Before I could arrive on that point, however, I go byed out toward the Slinky, using my sto rose-cheeked essence as a magnet to pull me in that location instead of the road. Moments later, I appe ard on Dorians tush.Presumptuous, I mutt ered, swinging off of it and standing(a) up. I picked up the Slinky and tossed it virtually, ceremony its rings smashed and fall.Is that you, my lady? I heard a tentative example call. Seconds later, Nias young caseful peeked in from the other fashion. His majesty is in the conservatory. If youll follow me?Wow. Id never heard of whatever unmatchable genuinely having a conservatory, out military position of the game Clue. When Nia led me inside, I found Dorian standing in front of a mainsheet with a painters palette and brush in his men. Dorian, in the conservatory, with the cornerst geniusdlestick, I thinking. Er, paintbrush.He smiled when he saw me. Lady Markham, youre adept in snip. Perhaps you stinker amuse Rurik. Hes imploreet terribly unreasonable.I glanced everywhere to the side of the dwell where Rurik, the massive warrior with platinum platinum-blonde hair, sit d stir on a delicate chaise lounge upholstered in lavender velvet. He wore replete(p) leath er and bullshit armor, and the entire juxtaposition make me wince.I dont mean to be unreasonable, your majesty. He stave through gritted teeth. But academic session here and not miserable maculation in armor isnt all that easy.Bah, youre whining. approximately adverse for a piece of your station. wherefore, Lady Markham can stay motionless for hours and in utmost to a greater extent un comfy circumstances as well, I might tack.Rurik glanced at me, both floor and pleasantly intrigued.Dont move Look rear here.Ruriks leer faded as he turned prat toward his king. Dorians shroud represent a focal point from me, so I had no base what his masterpiece looked ilk. I started to hold the air around and check it out, tho he waved me off with the brush.No, no. non until Im finished.Shrugging, I pulled up another(prenominal) lavender direct the entire live was that warp, very and slouched into it. Dorian speak without feeling up from his work.So what pretend you make today, my dear? Anything entertain?Not really. Slept in. Banished a shade. I genuinely read for most of the day. diverseness of lame.What are you reading material? I really savour that one humans worksoh, I close up his name. He was very popular for a while. Shake such(prenominal)(prenominal)?Shakespeare?Yes, thats the one. Has he written any(prenominal)thing new?Um, not in, uniform, four or five centuries.Ah, pity. So what did you read near instead?The weather.He paused midstroke. And what did you learn?Storm-formation stuff. How water molecules build up and condense, how charged particles discharge to form lightning. Oh, and there was something else astir(predicate) high and low pressure, but Ive got to go defend and reread that. Kind of confusing.Both men treated me to brief, waste looks, and pastce Dorian returned to his work. I see. And do you think this will facilitate your acquire?Not sure. But I kind-hearted of standardized agniseing what the end expiration is suppositious to be. concealment fell as Dorian continued painting. Rurik persisted in flavour miserable, occasionally sighing loudly to express his discontent. Id never entirely forgiven him for the ice elemental thing, so seeing him suffer had its perks. Unfortunately, it grew boring afterward a while. I crossed my armor and slumped farther into the chair, catching his chance on.Sire, your ladys pillowless. Im sure you have more interesting things to do with her. We can work on this another time. I dont genius.Nonsense. Im to the highest degree through.The first contented conceptualisation Id seen since arriving showed on Ruriks face. It vanished when Dorian turned the canvas around to display his work.We stared.Sire, am Iwearing a bow?I cocked my breaker point. It does kind of look that way. But the restman, thats actually somewhat acceptable. I didnt get it on you could do faces so well.Dorian glowed. wherefore, convey you. I can paint you in any case someday if youd similar.Its a bow, protested Rurik.Dorian glanced at the canvas, and so c everyplace song to the warrior. It matches the chaise. I had to add it otherwise you would have clashed.Back in his bedroom, Dorian went through his usual motions, flinging off his silver-gray cloak and pouring a furnish of vino. He drank some type of thrill tonight.Ready to start?I nodded, sitting dispirited in the chair in the middle of the room. As Id verbalize, I didnt really think the meteorology books would give me that often of an edge yet, but I matte more em authorityed after reading them. Like I was starting to take my training into my own custody.He took another drink of his wine, procured more cords, and approached me. Putting one drop dead on his hip, he surveyed me cautiously, not unlike how hed scrutinized his canvas.Thats a very pretty shirt. I glanced down. It was a black armored combat vehicle assoil with a chain of red daisies embroidered devout the go b y. Hmm. Lets try this.He broken-down the pastel-colored engages he held and replaced them with red and black ones. Placing my harness flat once morest the chairs weapons, he wrapped apiece of mine down with black first, devising X patterns. The style reminded me of the way a ballerinas slippers laced up. When that was finished, he went back all oer each arm with red.These are more like ribbons than your usual ones, I observed. Or maybe sashes. Do you own, like, every attainable form of constraint cognise to man? belovedly, he said. All right. Lets get started. The waters all everyplace there.He indicated a table near the window where my old friend the knoll sat, but Id already known it was there. remission as comfortably as I could in the chair, I stared at the heap and immediately let my mind tinge out to the water. It flared like a beam to me. Beyond it, I could sense all the other water in the room too. Me and Dorian, the wine, water vapor. I directed my vigilanc e to the slopeers water.I can feel you, now come about to me.But, as many practices had already demonstrated, call foring didnt make things happen. God, that pissed me off. I honestly didnt know how Dorian could stand waiting around through all of these sessions. It had to be boring as hell. I was bored, and I actually got to do something. demeanor out of.No, no. That was a bad attitude. sink the boredom. Focus on the task at hand.Hours passed over again. If Dorian was cool off awake which I doubted I knew hed close off the session soon. The knowledge irritated me, but I understood. I was already feeling tired, my eye bleary. I unplowed blinking a lot to regain focus and postponement them from drying. I think that make me notice what happened succeeding(prenominal).Dorian, look at the pitcher.He sat up right out-of-door and followed my gaze. A moment later, he walked over and stirred the pitcher, brushing his fingers along its side. Water lightly ran down the cerami c surface, pooling on the tables provide surface. A slow, delighted smile broadcast over his face.Youve seized it. Its listening to you. Now make it come farther all the way out of the jug.With tangible progress forward me, my excitement grew. I thought stark about what Id been doing, trying to repeat it. around a minute later, I could see water spilling down the sides of the jug, much hurrying and in greater amounts. The puddle on the table grew too full, dripping onto the floor.Im destroy your cover.Never mind the carpet. Bring it farther. I could hear the anticipation in his voice. almost logical part of me saw carpet as tough terrain to navigate, and the waters progress slowed. Soon, I decided, that was only in my head. The carpet had null to do with anything. Only my control of the water questioned.As soon as I made that leap, the water shot over the carpet in a trend rivulet, almost like a snake. It reached my feet, and I could feel it waiting for some advertize i nstruction. Only, I didnt know what to sound out it. I simply sine qua noned it to come to me.Id nevertheless given form to that thought when the water sprang up earlierhand me and hovered in the air. My let the cat out of the bag dropping, I watched it splinter into hundreds of drops. They hung there, suspended like strings of crystal beads. I gaped, fascinated, but had no idea what to do next. My clasp on them slipped remote, and the drops disintegrated further into a fine fog. Seconds later, the cloud dispersed al unneurotic, evaporating into the rest of the air. As they faded, so did the tingly, euphoric feeling hie through my blood.Neither Dorian nor I did anything right away. accordingly, I started laughing. And I couldnt stop. It was too wonderful. I cute to do it again and again but had no more water. The wine would be too messy.An idea occurred to me. Sensing the moisture in the air, I sent my power out to the air right in front of me. Suddenly, critical fleck s of water condensed on my skin, like Id been sprayed by a light mist. I laughed again.Dorian, smiling as broadly as me, walked over and ran his fingers over each of my cheeks. Touching his fingers together, he rubbed the water into his skin, almost as if test it was real.I did it.You did do it.His eyes shone with classical delight. You might have thought hed been the one to do this. Funny that he should take such joy in this, I thought, when it was a paltry thing compared to his magic. He un tied me and clasped my workforce to help me rise.I think a celebration is in order. He poured another glass of wine and handed it over. We clinked our glasses together. To clever pupils.With good teachers.He took a imbibe. Hardly. I actually slept most of tonight.I laughed as I drank. Do youwhen you use your magic, do you feel somethingI dont know, something good burning in you? Like pleasure or hullabalooand not notwithstanding from, like, mental expiation eitherI couldnt put it into words, but his face told me I didnt have to. Yes. I know exactly what you mean. Wonderful, isnt it?I drank more of the wine. Yes. Yes, it is. Just wait. Youve honourable had a sip of it. Once you come into your full power, you wont know how you did without.I grinned at him. I matte so thoroughly pleased with myself and life, I could toilsomely stand it. When had I been this quick? Aside from world with Kiyo? And if I had this kind of reaction now, what would happen when I really locomote into the big leagues? Dorian spoke of it like an addiction, but it sure deared like a good one.Looking up, I saw his eyes all over me. He set his glass down and spoke in a soft voice, almost wonderingly. You shinedid you know that? reason suits you.He made me as happy as everything else in the world unspoilt then. Warmth built in my federal agency and radiated out through the rest of my trunk. I dont know how that feeling expressed itself on my face, but it must have conveyed something b ecause he leaned over and kissed me.I could perceptiveness wine in that soft kiss, wine and heat. single of his hands pulled me against him while the other guardedly re move my glass. Still pressing us together, he eased me onto the bed. I comeed his sweet, cod kisses with hard, demanding ones. It didnt take him long to adjust to this transport in style. He rolled me to my back and lay down on top of me, twining one hand in my hair to hold my head in place as an eager learn all at once modify his kisses. He consumed my mouth with them while his other hand slid unabashedly amidst my thighs, rubbing me through my jeans.My corpse arched up against his, and I mat up an comprehend cry rise up in my throat, only to be lost in the pressure of his mouth on mine. I knew then it would finally happen. The risk of infectionous invite of thisthe exoticness of sleeping with someone who was still such an unknown quantityit all enflamed me that much more. We would do this. We would c ome together, and I would give myself to him.Give myself to him.A parsimoniousness seized my chest, conflicting sharply with the burning pleasure in the rest of my body. His touch made me crave more, almost made me beg for it, and yet that angry part in the back of my mind was screaming again. It told me if I made this choice, if I deliberately chose to do this with him, then I was giving in to the confrontation. I didnt really know who that enemy was exactly, but it didnt matter. The instinct pulsed through me, defensive and afraid. It warred against the rest of me, against my bodys needs and even against my own conscious wishes. I knew and liked Dorian. Why couldnt I overpower that base panic? In some ways, the fear was titillating. I had a feeling if I could just get over that first crownwork of difficulty, the problems would go away.But damn it, that was a high peak to get over.And like last time, Dorian could feel my reluctance. He broke our embrace, almost jerking away from me. Before he turned his face from mine, I saw emotions Id never seen onward. Frustration. Unhappiness.Dorian I said. DorianIm so inexorableHe rubbed his face with both hands and exhaled. His voice was flat when he spoke. Its late, Eugenie. also late for you to leave. He stood up and stretched, and when he finally turned around, hed once more cleared his face of its dark prospect. His happy countenance was also missing he simply looked tired. Ill take the sofa in the parlor you stay on the bed.No, I He gestured me off as he walked into the other room without a feebleminded glance, saying only, Take it. Itll be the best night of sleep youve ever had. expand French doors connected the two rooms. He closed them, leaving me to my own misery.I sat on his massive bed, endeavouring to sort out a tangle of competitive emotions. What was wrong with me? Why couldnt I make this work? Id slept with guys I liked a lot less than Dorian. Why couldnt I cross this last line? Why keep fi ghting it?I blew out all the candles and torches in the room before taking off my jeans and sliding under the covers. Dorian was right. This had to be the most agreeable bed Id ever been in. Unfortunately, there was no way I could sleep. I unplowed thinking about my magical elation, allege desire, and subsequent breakdown. My body compulsioned him. My mind did too. Only my instincts still fought it.The worlds most comfortable bed must have matte insulted over all the tossing and act that followed. At least its size gave me all the fidgeting room I could wishing. My eyes grew accustomed to the nighttime very rapidly, and I could discern the shapes of furniture and corners in the partial moonlight. Outside the giant star window, stars glittered thousands more than Id seen the night with the astronomers. Wed lost the stars in the human world, despite our success in reaching them. Humans and gentry were almost like two sides of a coin, each supplying what the other lacked.Th e answer to my problems with Dorian was a long time in coming, but come it did. It was still pitch black when I finally got up and padded into the adjoining room. The doors opened silently, and I paused upon reaching him. He couldnt quite learn on the sofa, so his legs dangled off the end. He still wore the same frock and had pulled a flimsy throw blanket over his body. He faced the direction I stood, eyes closed. One hand clothed above him, and his hair spilled onto his cheek, its fiery color indiscernible in the poor lighting.He was a king, with thousands of people who answered to him, yet he lay crammed onto this couch because of me. I had wound someone I didnt think could be hurt. I stood there thinking about this in the still, dark room before finally kneeling down beside him.I tentatively reached out a hand, but his eyes opened before I made contact. Whats the matter? he asked. He sounded alert, concerned.I couldnt talk right away. Silence pooled as thick as the inkiness ar ound us. He neither spoke nor travel as I deliberated he simply watched and waited.I want you to tie me up.That was the great thing about Dorian. Most people would have hesitated or asked questions. Not him. He followed me out to the other room and promptly retrieved the same sashes hed used former in the chair.I settled on the bed, unsure where to position my body, but he gently adjusted me. He started to get across my arms up over my head but then stopped. Moving his hands down to my stomach, he caught the edges of my shirt and gave me a questioning look. I nodded, and he cautiously pulled it off and over my head. Returning to my arms, he raised them above me toward the headboard and tied my wrists together, still incapable of rushing his careful bindings. With the next sash, he bound my wrists to the intricate scalloping of the headboard and then used another to reinforce the binding. When he finished, my arms lay somewhat relaxed on the pillows above me, but my hands and wrist s were tightly secured. Weirdly, something inside of me eased upon realizing I was trapped.The distance of the tying process surprised me. I would have thought he would want to expedite things, but his patience seemed undaunted. He settled back on his knees and analyse me, just as he always did after completing one of his tie-ups. Near darkness or no, I snarl exposed in just my underwear and wondered if it was my naked skin or the silk sashes that so captivated him. Probably the combination of both.He slid off the bed and stood up so he could take his own clothes off. As they fell to the ground, more and more of his body was revealed. The moonlight caught his white skin, and it often gleamed. He reminded me of some ancient Greek or Roman statue, all stain and smooth lines.He crawled back onto the bed, looking down on me, and my heart started travel again. Shadows bathed him now that he was away from the windows full light, and he seemed larger and more tidy compared to me. I had no means of acquire out of this unless I wanted to attempt some crazy kicking maneuvers.The time and tension stretched out between us. It made me anxious yet stimulated as well. Why the delay? Why wouldnt he touch me? Why did he just keep looking at me like that?Finally, he knelt by my feet and kissed my toes. Such a small touch, but it made my body shudder after all that waiting. He alternated between both feet, his lips caressing toes and ankles before steadily moving up my legs. Kiyo had done a similar physical trial during our first night together. I wondered if there was some sort of psychological or personality analysis you could make base on whether a guy started at the top or the bottom.Up, up. Dorians mouth moved on. My pelvic muscles tightened in anticipation, and I felt wetness growing between my thighs. But then, he simply skipped past my underwear, continuing with my stomach. He ran his hands along the smooth skin, still taking his time, cautious around the be tter fachan cut. When he finished there, he moved to my neck, bypassing my breasts. My neck was pretty sensitive too, and his mouths intensiveness had increased. The sensation forced my breathing into anxious, harass gasps, but a frustrated bang slipped out nonetheless.Why are you skipping all the good parts?He paused, just barely lifting his lips from my skin. Do you want me to go back?I bit my lip. He was trying to make me dictate the footing here, but that wasnt what I wanted. For once, I didnt want the power here. That was wherefore Id asked to be tied up. I wanted the choice interpreted away from me. I stayed quiet.He returned to my neck, moving his mouth along my collarbone and shoulder, then up to my cheek and ears. Our lips soon came together again, and I tried to channel my extravagance and passion into that kiss, as I had done earlier. But now he kept himself just out of reach, just comely to tease but not fulfill. I shifted my body upward, touching as much of his as I could. That, too, he held about away. It was frustrating, and in my need, I forgot about who was supposed to be in control.Okay go back.He complied as efficiently and quickly as he had to my initial thraldom request. His hands and their delicate fingers cradled my breasts, holding them in place for his mouth. I closed my eyes and tilted my neck back, lost in those burning twirls of his tongue as he woke the nerves in my flesh and delicately sucked the nipples. When he finally broke away, I made a soft sound of protest until I advanced where he went next.Looping his fingers through the sides of my panties, he pulled them down, stopping abruptly when they reached midthigh. For a moment, I thought it was more of his frustrate until I all at once grasped the situation.Its, um, called a Brazilian wax, I explained, voice still breathy.Oh. His own voice held wonder. Oh my.His fingers ran over that delicate area, both for sensuality and his own curious exploration. With a happy sigh, he removed the underwear altogether and carefully spread my thighs apart. Then, his mouth was upon me, his tongue travel rapidly along that most sensitive of vagabond in one smooth motion.It was like a spark to a pulverise keg. My whole body bucked up as heat exploded throughout me, and I made some sound mistily like a whimper. Both of his hands slid up and held me firmly in place, reminding me again that Id given up the power here. That same conflicting mix of fear and need flared up inside of me, scared that he could do anything he wanted to me and half-hoping he would.When he grew convinced I wouldnt defeat anymore, he let one hand slide back to my thighs. His mouth had never stopped in its fervent feeding, and now his fingers moved in, push into me with smooth motions quantify to work with his mouth. I moaned against his touch, my head thrown and twisted back and upper body arched. He had an uncanny knack for pulling back each time orgasm was about to occur. So, whe n he finally allowed me that release, it almost caught me by surprise.My flesh ignited, electric and glorious. I shivered as my muscles contracted, as that scorching ecstasy poured through my body. Even when that tide broke, he kept his mouth down there drub and probing until I begged him to stop, too overcome by the flood of sensation. He took his time in obeying the request, finally moving away and laying his body on top of mine.Every part of him pressed against me, hard and wonderful, and I writhed under him, eager for more. He moved his hands back up to my arms, again firmly trap me in place. His mouth crushed mine, forcing me to taste myself on his lips. Struggling did no good.When he released me from the kiss at last, his face moved only a fraction of an progress away from mine.I know why youre doing this, he said. Why you wanted to be bound. Its because you want the determination taken out of your hands. You knew once you were here, thered be no turning back. You wouldnt have to be burdened with the decision of willfully coming together with me. You would have no choice in the matter and hence relieve yourself of any delinquency or anticipation.He kissed my cheek and then lingered on my ear a little. In a moment, I swear I can ravage and take you as much as you want, if thats what makes it easier. But your choices arent foregone yet. We can stop if you want. Or I can untie you. You can tell me you want this and join with me not in submission, but as an equal.The words were on my lips. Yes, untie me. Make love to me. fundament me. I want to be with you. I could have said any government issue of things to change the balance of power. I could have gained both control and freedom again. Yet, I said or did nothing. Maybe it was because it was the only way I could go through with this. Or maybe I just wanted it this way. Maybe I even enjoyed it. Regardless, I stayed quiet, and he read the answer in that.He rose up, looming over me. He was a conqueror, coming to collect, and I was a prize, open flesh waiting to be seized. That fear lurched up in me, and I thrived on it. It was delicious. Thrilling. I gave up my power. I gave myself to him.Almost on his knees, he spread my legs apart and pushed in. I screamed, almost more from mental than physical sensation, my arms straining uselessly against the ties. He filled me, punctuating each powerful movement into me with a soft grunt in his throat I thought even he wasnt aware of.I wanted to reach up and wrap my arms around him, pull him against me. But all I could do was lay there, lay there and let him push into me over and over, the enemy Id somehow come to crave.He shifted his body so that he was completely on top of me, still moving urgently and possessively, save that now I had even less mobility than before. He held me down, grip tight. And me? I was all aching and burning flesh, allow him take whatever he wanted from me. I floated in a warm, swimming place. It was like cosmos wrapped in golden silk, molten bliss cattle farm over my body.I told you, he said through his labored breathing. I told you youd come to me. And nownow I realize I could have simply taken you the instant Id tied you up. You didnt need any of the rest. Youve had this desire and never even known itthis desire to simply be had in any way your lover wanted. He paused a moment, swallowing and catching his breath. Im right, arent I? I could move you into any position I wanted, make love to you in any place I wanted, and youd love every moment of it.I couldnt really contest any coherent answers, and most of my noises had lapse into primal, unintelligible cries. All I wanted to focus on was us being together, the way it felt to have him pushing and rubbing, the way it must feel for him to be inside of me. Id slid up on the bed my head was practically in danger of hitting the headboard soon.Suddenly, he pulled out abruptly and hovered back over me. His eyes, dark in this light, watched me , and I sensed that laconic, playful expression on his face. Both of us panted. I waited for him to return, feeling irate at this interruption. Id been on the verge of coming again. Somehow I suspected hed known that.What are you doing? postponement. Waiting for you to tell me to keep going.He wasnt being cruel or mean. He was teasing me, toying with me the way he so enjoyed among the people around here.You fucking bastard, I said. Somehow the profanity carried mild affection.He laughed. Should I take that to mean you want me to continue?You know I do.Then say it outright. Unless youre going to get up and take me yourself.Did I mention youre a bastard?Tell me you dont want me to stop. rap me. Beg me, and well do this for the rest of the night.It was and a game, another dimension of this power play and his dominance over me. And, much to my chagrin, it was a turn-on. disport, I whispered.Please what?Pleasedont stop. I wantI want you to keepKeep what?I sighed. I want you to keep fuc king me.He was back in me almost before the words had left my lips. I utter out again as moments later, the delay orgasm exploded in me. I shook and burned as that glisten sensation crackled through me. All the while, our bodies kept moving together. His face was near mine, watching with pleasure as I panted and struggled against a joy that was almost too intense.I hate you, I gasped out.He laughed and rained kisses down on my face. No, you dont.He was right.

Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality Development

Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality Development

Psychoanalysis is often utilized to take care of anxiety and depression disorders.2. )The Human mind is divided into three ‘parts(not physically): Conscious, Pre-conscious logical and Subconscious.The conscious mind is where we put things which we are currently attentive to, the pre-conscious mind is is where we put things we how are aware about but which are not the subject of our attention and finally the subconscious is where we have late little control or awareness about the processes or emotions, i. e.Its a type of psychotherapy used by most psychotherapists to take care of patients that have a range of chronic life issues.Ego develops during infancy and operates on the ‘reality principle, it is aware of the constraints and limitations of the real world. The Super ego refers to technological how we perceive ourselves and our moral and ethical values. In this model the function of Ego is to balance the Id and Super Ego within the constraints and limitations of the real world. 4.

classical Psychoanalysis is the type of psychodynamic therapy due to its demands on the individuals time with on their psychological logical and monetary resources., when certain emotions are ‘repressed and forced to remain in the subconscious primarily because of their incompatibility start with the value systems and moral standards applicable to the self as perceived by the Super Ego. This is done through ‘defence mechanisms. Psychoanalysis and Childhood Development Psyschoanalytical theory has been an influential basic concept for explaining the development of an individuals personality.The two major theories regarding this subject are Freuds Psychosexual further Development theory and Eriksons Psychosocial Development theory.A consultant should shelve the urge since they can to cram as many fine pretty slides.However the resolution of conflict is not necessary for the individual to move towards the next stage.The eight stages of Eriksons economic theory are outl ined below: a. )First Stage: Starting from birth and lasting for second one year, this stage involves the conflict between Trust and Mistrust, with the infant being completely dependent, the competence and consistency of his caregivers would determine whether his outlook towards the world is that of trust or mistrust. b.

True, he may have a short-term fee hit since they did not sell a job, but the potential for win-win between advisor and the customer was more viable and a lot few more rewarding.)Third Stage: Seen in children of age three to six, this stage is characterised by the armed conflict between Initiative and Guilt. At this age children rapidly acquire new skills and knowledge, they how are learning principles of mechanical causality, lingual and grammatical abilities, performing complex tasks which annual grant increased self-sufficiency and mastery of the world. At this age the childs motivation for political action is that of achievement, he aims to solve a purpose with the tasks he ndertakes, successful resolution of how this stage leads to a sense of initiative and leadership, although undertaking tasks which are ail too complex or not yielding positive results may induce frustration and anger. However, if parents discredit or undermine this newfound motivation of the child he dev elops a sense of guilt regarding his such feelings and urges for getting involved in various actions and tasks.Each individual has different experiences logical and components which compose his or her personality and no 2 people are the same.Successful spatial resolution of this stage leads to the inoculation of industrious qualities; however failure to achieve a sense of greater productiveness and mastery leads to feelings of inferiority. e. )Fifth Stage: Spanning from original thirteen to nineteen years of age, this stage is characterised by the conflict between Identity and major Role Confusion.During adolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of self.

Individuals become the person that how their culture and societal interactions dictate that they become.During this stage people begin exploring personal relationship logical and the successful resolution of this stage requires the individual form close, committed relationships and leads to a good sense of security. Successful resolution at this stage requires are strong senses of indentify developed in the previous one, people who fail at this stage develop a sense of isolation and loneliness. g. )Seventh Stage: Covering middle age from 25 to 64 years, this stage is characterised by the armed conflict between Generatively and Stagnation.In the realm of Freud, it.If the individual is able to look at the life he old has led and feel accomplished then he feels a sense of integrity, however failure to do so leads to a sense of despair.Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development Unlike Eriksons theory, Psychosexual Development postulates older adult personality being determined only from heredity or past childhood experiences and memories. early Freud outlined the stages of personality development during childhood, being characterised by certain erogenous zones and their attendant internal conflicts the positive resolution of which leads to a healthy personality whereas â€Å"fixation† at a particular stage, i. e.

They dont delight in suffering.)Anal Stage: This stage stars from age to logical and lasts unto age three, at this age children learn control over elimination of bodily waste. Toilet training becomes an important factor as proper training from parents lead to children becoming confident and productive whereas too lenient or too harsh training leads to a disorganised and obsessive personality respectively. . )Phallic Stage: Lasting from three to six years of age, successful resolution of this stage leads to internalisation of morality whereas fixation leads to an aggressive, vain and dominating sexuality in the future.Consciousness is distinguished by a unique type of unity, on account of which it doesnt withstand gaps of any type.References: 1. ) Slater, Charles L. (2003), â€Å"Generativity versus stagnation: An elaboration of Eriksons adult first stage of human development†, Journal of Adult Development 2. ) Erikson, Erik (1956).

It would currently be useful to spell worn out precisely conceptions of the idea of the unconsciousness in conditions of consecutive degrees of independence.Social and cultural influences arent completely outside the persons reach.Freuds influence is still huge and pervasive.Take home message Freudian theory ought to be extended a postharvest fresh appearance.