Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Growth Of Islamic Fundamentalism In Afghanistan Politics Essay

The Growth Of Islamic Fundamentalism In Afghanistan Politics Essay If there has been an overriding feature of their history [the Afghans], it is that it has been a history of conflictof invasions, battles and sieges, of vendettas, assassinations and massacres, of tribal feuding, dynastic strife and civil war. (2001, 12) Martin Ewan, Afghanistan, A Short History of Its People and Politics Since the end of the Cold War, the Afghanistan has witnessed a considerable rise in internal violence. During the 1960s a struggle had developed between Communists and Islamists in Afghanistan.  [1]  After the withdrawal of Soviet troops and subsequent takeover by the Taliban, Afghanistan has been constantly turning into a radically Islamist nation. FOUNDATION OF ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN THE AFGHANISTAN The USSRs attempts to consolidate a Communist regime in Afghanistan, first through aid and indirect involvement and later through direct military involvement, were major components in the development of the civil war in Afghanistan which eventually led to the victory of the Mujahidin and the rise of the fundamentalist Islamic regime.  [2]   In 1979, after the invasion had jolted the Muslim world. They realized that they were in no position to conduct a conventional campaign against Soviet Union. Thus a number of Muslim volunteers commenced moving to Pakistan to assist in the jihad. One of the first volunteers to move in to Pakistan was Osama Bin Laden. He said, One day in Afghanistan is like thousand days in a mosque. At first he personally covered the cost of travel of all volunteers to Afghanistan. In early 1980, he set up Masadat Al Ansar, then the main base for Arab mujahedeen in Afghanistan  [3]  . This was the first time a formalized training camp was set up in this country. During this period Sheikh Abd Allah Yussuf Azza, who was the key in establishing the International Legion of Islam- hard core of international terrorism, came in contact with Bin Laden. Together they established the Bait ul Ansar, which received and trained the first Islamist volunteers for Afghanistan. The Afghan Mujahidin waged their struggle against the USSR not only as a national liberation war but as a jihad in which radical Islamic elements from throughout the Muslim world took part and which had the blessing of most Arab and Muslim states  [4]  . However, most of the Mujahidin movements centred around traditional religious leadership based on ethnic and regional considerations, although some of the movements were heterogeneous and included supporters and included supporters and activities from various ethnic groups. The protest movement formed around local political and religious leaders and gradually developed into two main factions.  [5]   The first faction wanted to transform Afghanistan into an Islamic state in the spirit of Islamic law (Shariah). They adopted principals from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood and advocated jihad against the Communist regime. This stream became known as the fundamentalist stream.  [6]   The second faction wanted to found a regime in the unique tribal tradition of Afghanistan. They also advocated struggle against the Communist regime. A considerable portion of the leaders of this faction came from the ranks of the supporters of King Zahir and inspired to reinstate the monarchy. This stream, which became known as the traditional or moderate stream, felt that the life of the individual should be guided by Islam but community and state problems should be solved in the tribal Afghan way.  [7]   All the major mujahidin parties advocate an Islamic republic as an end goal and are essentially religious. Islam has been the primary ideology and unifying factor among all these parties in the course of the struggle against the Soviet occupation; secular parties have attracted no significant following, especially the left, which was discredited by the communist takeover. Within the spectrum of Islam, however, these parties differ significantly in their makeup and approach. Traditional analysis has divided the seven Sunni parties into four Islamist and three traditional parties  [8]  . (a) Islamist. (i) Hizb- e -Islami (the Islamic Party), led by Gulbuddin Hikmetyar, primarily Pashtun in membership and radical in character. An Islamic fundamentalist-oriented movement advocating the foundation of a central Islamic republic. The organization is a variance and in conflict with the majority of the other Islamic movement. (ii) Hizb- e -Islami (the Islamic Party), led by Younis Khalis, primarily Pashtun in membership (on a tribal basis) and kept the original name even splitting from Gulbuddin Hikmetyars party. A fundamentalist-oriented movement that advocates the foundation of a theocratic republic. (iii) Ittihad-e- Islami (the Islamic Alliance of Afghan Mujahidin), led by Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, mainly Pashtun and radical in character as well as Saudi-oriented. An organization with a conservative ideology that advocates the establishment of an Islamic republic. The organization developed into a body that attempted to unify various Afghan elements located in Pakistan. (iv) Jamaat-e-Islami (the Islamic Movement of Afghanisdtan), led by Burhanuddin Rabbani, with membership mainly drawn from northern Afghanistan (Tajiki extraction) and more moderate in character. An Islamic fundamentalist-oriented movement advocating the foundation of a theocratic republic. (b) Traditionalist. (i) Harakat-e-Inquila Islami (The Islamic Revolutionary Movement), led by Mohammad Nabi Muhammadi, primarily Pashtun in membership and drawing more on traditional clergy. A conservative organization that aligns itself with returning to the prerevolutionary establishment (a relatively moderate organization). (ii) Jabha-ye-Nejat-e-Milli (The National Liberation Front), led by Sibghatullah Mujaddedi, mainly Pashtun in membership and Sufi oriented. A monarchist organization that supports reestablishment of the Pashtun establishment in the pre-revolutionary format. This is a relatively small organization among the Pashtun population. (iii) Mahaz-e-Islami (the Islamic National Front of Afghanistan), led by Pir Sayed Ahmad Gailani, mainly Pashtun and Sufi oriented as well as pro-royalist. A monarchist organization that aligns itself with reinstatement of the monarchy (in the pre-revolutionary format) In addition, there are a variety of Shiite parties as many as ten at present, but with only a few having substantial political clout. Eight of these Shiite parties are religious and oriented toward Iran but are not necessarily firm in their support of the political line of the Ayatollah Khomeini. Two Shiite parties are not affiliated with Iran. Main Shiite organizations are  [9]  :- (a) Shura, led by Sayed Ali Beheshti. The organization advocates establishment of a Hazara autonomy. IT reached its height of power in 1979-1980 but later lost Iranian support to more radical Shiite organizations. (b) Nasser (Victory), led by Mir Hussein Tsadiki. An organization that advocates Hazara separatism. The organization was supported in the early 1980s by the Iranians as a counterbalance to the Shura but gradually became overly independent and lost Irans support. (c) Harkat-e-Islami (Movement of Islami Revolution), led by Mohammed Alsayyaf Muhseini. The organization advocates establishment of an Islamic state. It was supported by Hazara population and the Dari-speaking Shiite populations. (d) The Revolutionary Guards, led by Muhsein Razzai. A Khomeini-Hazara organization that advocates unification with Iran. Since 1984 the organization has massive Iranian support. (e) Hizbullah is a Hazara organization with a Khomeini orientation that advocates unification with Iran. The organization receives substantial support from Iran and maintains cooperative ties with Hizbullah in other countries. AFGHAN FUNDAMENTALISM : ITS ROOT OF LEGITIMACY The Afghan fundamentalist, or Islamist, movement enjoys a powerful base of legitimacy in Afghan politics owing to three key factors as under :- (a) The historic role of Afghanistan as defender of the faith in the Indian subcontinent. (b) The Islamists opposition to communism in Afghanistan in the early 1970s which forced many Afghan leaders to work from Pakistan against communist influence (the 1978 communist coup in Afghanistan overwhelmingly vindicated the Islamists initial fear of communist influence and intentions). (c) The paramount role of Islamist and religious parties in the struggle against Soviet occupation. AFGHANISTAN ROLE OF DEFENDER OF THE FAITH Afghanistan has had a unique and long-established tradition as defender of Islam in the subcontinent  [10]  . In the 19th century, for example, India (including present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh) was under the rule of the British Raj, the Turkish Ottoman Empire controlled vast portion of the Arab world, and Iran was helpless in the face of Russian and British domination but Afghanistan was one of a handful of truly independent Muslim countries in the world. Afghanistan alone had maintained its own independence from foreign control since 1747, and it thus enjoyed respect and recognition throughout the Muslim world. Afghanistans Durrani Empire in the 19th century was actually the second largest Muslim empire in the world at that time, ceding first place only to the Ottomans  [11]  . In the 19th century, Kabul helped foment Islamic political uprisings in India and was itself seen as one of the few places of refuge for those Muslims in British India who felt it was religiously untenable to live in a godless(British-run) state. Kabul also struck several severe blows against British power in the region, most notably by repelling what turned out to be a disastrous invasion of Afghanistan by the British army in 1842.  [12]   THE FOUNDATIONS OF ISLAMIST STRENGTH The strength of the Islamist movement in Afghanistan today rests largely on its military capabilities and on the strength of its political organization. The movement is not, in other words, a popular one, although it does command widespread respect for its role in the liberation of the country from Soviet occupation. It derives particular legitimacy from having provided the ideological spearhead for that struggle, radical Islam, which transcends mere nationalism. The Islamists movement, however, had actively opposed communist coup and takeover began. The movement thus occupies a central place in Afghan politics today. That all Afghan mujahidin parties today have a religious basis was underscored during the anti-Soviet jihad, or holy war a conflict that helped define the Islamic orientation of contemporary Afghan politics. Hence, there is a strong likelihood that the political, removal or fall of Najibullahs Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) will be followed by the establishment of some type of Islamic republic -one that is committed in some measure to the implementation of Islamic law (the Shari a). Possible Islamic models from which Afghanistan might draw include the Islamic governments of Iran, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. The actual character of the new Afghan government, however, could vary considerably, depending in who dominates it and on the nature of specific policies and methods of implementation. Of the seven Sunni mujahidin parties in Afghanistan today, four are fundamentalist-ideological-Islamist in character, and two of these four are radical in their beliefs and operating style. Together, these four parties have the more integral role in the Soviet conflict than have the more traditional parties. Indeed, a key contributor to the Islamists strength has been the large measure of support that the radical Islamist parties have derived from Pakistan by virtue of their military performance and zeal. Such support was bolstered by former Pakistans President Mohammed Zia-ul-Haqq, who found the politics of the Afghan Islamist parties in consonance with his own Islamisation campaign in Pakistan. The Afghan Islamists, for their part, enjoyed the backing of Pakistani religious parties, who in turn were strong pillars of support for Zia. Zia also understood that the ideological orientation of the Islamist parties would largely inhibit them from encouraging Pashtun ethnic separatism in Pakistan an Afghan policy of nearly 30 years standing that had engendered considerable tension between the two countries. Islamists disapprove of narrow ethnic orientation as a basis for the state and instead support broader political groupings based on a common Islamic outlook. The close cooperation between Pakistan and the Afghan mujahidin against Soviet occupation of Afghanistan had one important and immediate consequence: the long standing hostility between Pakistan and Afghanistan has abated considerably. Benazir Bhuttos brief term as Prime Minister following Zias death, despite her more secular policies, did not significantly weaken Pakistans ties with the Afghan mujahidin. Fundamentalist parties in Pakistan will continue to support Afghan fundamentalist groups, regardless of the policies of Islamabad in the future. WILL THE FUNDAMENTALISTS COME TO POWER? Ironically, the removal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan has weakened one of the principal sources of Islamist strength in Afghanistan- for while all mujahidin parties may agree on the desirability of an Islamic government, consensus on power sharing is an entirely different matter. There are in fact deep rifts among the parties, mot only between traditionalists and Islamists but also among Islamists themselves. These divisions, which reflect ideological, regional, and ethnic differences as well as conflicts between personalities, are not likely to be readily resolved in the wake of the Soviet withdrawal. The strength of the Islamist parties rests on other factors as well like as under:- (a) Pakistan and Saudi preferences with respect to the distribution of aid among the mujahidin have served to strengthen the Islamists by providing them with greater opportunity to distribute their financial and military largess and hence to attract a broader following including support among the military commanders. (b) The mujahidins use of Pakistan as a political base of operations a factor that has skewed the true there -way power relationships inside Afghanistan among the parties, their local mujahidin commanders, and the populace at large has worked to the Islamists advantage. WEAKNESSES OF THE ISLAMIST PARTIES While the Islamists are still the single strongest element in Afghanistans political equation today, some of their strength derives from the location of their political base in the Pakistani border city of Peshawar, where Pakistans own political influence over the mujahidin can be maximized. As the struggle moves out of the anti Soviet, anticommunist phase and into a phase of civil war, the influence of the special political climate of Peshawar will diminish, and with it, the influence of Pakistan itself over the struggle. Other factors that may contribute to the possible weakening of Islamist influence are as follows :- (a) The Islamists lack a charismatic national figure like, for example, Irans Ayatollah Khomeini who will serve as a natural leader. (b) If financial support to specific mujahidin parties is severed in pursuit of a political solution in Kabul, it is unclear how much strength the Islamist parties would retain. While the Islamists ideological and organizational strengths remain significant in Peshawar, an internal power struggle inside Afghanistan would present a new set of variables that would affect the ultimate success of one party over another. (c) The Islamist parties are by no means united within themselves. (d) Because tribalism and regional loyalties in Afghanistan were largely subordinated in the decade long effort of all national elements to expel the Soviet Union, a permanently enhanced sense of national unity may now exist. On the other hand, the expulsion of the Soviet enemy may refocus Afghan politics on older and more parochial issues. Tribalism and regionalism are already reasserting themselves, essentially working against the radical Islamist parties. (e) Mujahidin commanders inside the country maintain only tenuous ties with the Peshawar parties. Hence they may not fully share the political views of these parties and may be increasingly inclined to act independently or to pursue their own agendas if alternative sources of aid weaken the party hold. (f) The highly disproportionate representation of ethnic Pashtuns among the refugee population in Pakistan skews our understanding of the political preferences of the broader population as a whole inside Afghanistan especially when Pakistan refugee camps are used as a basis for public opinion findings, press coverage, straw polls, and identification of political attitudes. Current Islamist strength in the Peshawar environment might well weaken once politics shift inside the country. The Islamists are therefore likely to come to power only by military means. The moderate parties in particular are concerned that the most radical Islamist faction, Hizb-e-Islami (the Islamic Party ), led by Gulbuddin Hikmetyar, may attempt to use Leninist tactics to eliminate other mujahidin leaders by assassination in order to secure power a fear that is based more on the personality of Gulbuddin than on the character of his Islamic ideology per se. While such an attempt cannot be ruled out, it is highly unlikely that a minority radical Islamist party attempting to do just that. Any radical Islamic leadership that sought to rule successfully would have to come to terms with the other political and ideological elements within the country. WHAT WOULD A RADICAL ISLAMIST LEADERSHIP MEANS? Any Islamist regime in Afghanistan, were it to come to power, would differ sharply from Irans Islamist regime in many important respects. First, such a regime would be firmly Sunni rather than Shiite in character, suggesting a greater ability to work with elements of secular state power as well as a less apocalyptic, oppression and martyr- oriented outlook. Afghan Islamists, furthermore, lack the depth of hostility toward the United States that has characterized Iranian politics. The Afghan Islamists in fact have almost no formal grievances against any past US role in Afghanistan; to the contrary, however much they may dislike US culture, the Islamists are well aware that the United States played a pivotal role in the anti- Soviet struggle. Afghan political culture as a whole also tends to be far less xenophobic than that of Iran- simply because Afghanistan has never been dominated and manipulated by foreign powers as consistently as was Iran throughout the 19th and early 20th centur ies. Nonetheless, Afghan Islamists share with other Islamist world movements the same concerns over the threat to the Islamic way of life posed by Western and especially American culture. Essentially , the Islamists perceive the United States as representing secularism, permissiveness, hedonism, individualism- all of which they see as deeply corrosive to the establishment of the virtuous Islamic society. Any Islamic Afghan regime will thus oppose such influences inside Afghanistan and will limit Afghan contact with American cultural influences. In addition, any Islamist regime in Kabul will gravitate strongly toward nonalignment and exclusion of Western as well as Soviet influence in the region. Such a regime would therefore oppose a US military presence in the Persian Gulf states, in Pakistan, or anywhere else in the Muslim world. Similarly, it would be likely to support the cause of Islamic minorities in regions such as India and the CAR. As an example, major ethnic elements in Afghanistan, such as Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Turkmen, are heavily represented in the CAR- a phenomenon that the Soviets have attempted to exploit in efforts to draw Afghanistan closer to the USSR. Yet such tactics have not assisted Soviet policy and in fact have likely backfired; ties between ethnic elements of both sides of the Soviet border are more likely to draw these populations closer together, resulting in an effort to diminish Moscows influence and to broaden the options of the Muslim populations of the CAR. Finally, an Islamist Afghan regime will be strongly conscious of Western imperialism and will be a strong advocate of the have-nots in North vs South issues. Despite these positions, however, an Islamist Afghanistan will have limited opportunity or reason to directly attack US interests, since such interests in Afghanistan will be highly limited in their scope. Afghan Islamists would unquestionably support the cause of fundamentalist parties in Pakistan, which could bring them into conflict with US policies there. Unlike pre- 1978 Afghan governments, however, Afghan Islamists are unlikely to support ethnic separatism in Pakistan. An Islamist Afghanistan will share some philosophical interests with Iran, but it would not be likely to cooperate closely with Iran on anything other than broad international Islamic issues. Sunni fundamentalists will in fact resent Irans support of the Afghan Shia, who will represents Irans chief instrument of influence in Afghanistan, and there is likely to be some degree of rivalry between a Sunni and a Shiite Islamic republic. Irans bid for influence in Afghanistan has nonetheless risen dramatically since the end of the Iran- Iraq War, and it perceives itself as a major player in future Afghan politics. Part of Irans goal here is to thwart Saudi interests. EMERGENCE OF TALIBAN Ever since the fall of Najibullah government and withdrawal of Soviet forces, the attempts by Pakistan to form a consensus regime in Kabul had failed. Pakistan also failed to install Hekmatayar govt and Rabbani had his own ambitions showing no inclination to accept Pakistani directions. By early 1994,the Inter Service Intelligence Agency (ISI) realised that the Rabbani regime was slowly consolidating itself in Kabul. This development was against Pakistans overall interests in Afghanistan and forced her to look for an alternative. Maj Gen (Retd) Naseerullah Babar, the Interior Minister in the second Benazir Bhutto Government conceived the idea of creating a students militia along with some veterans from the Afghan Mujahedeen who had fought the Soviet Army and who had taken shelter in Pakistan.  [13]   The infrastructure for launching Taliban was set up by May 1994.  [14]  The word Taliban literally means students of religious schools . The Taliban militia largely comprises students of religious schools (Madrassas) in Baluchistan and NWFP. Initially these Madrassas were set up by Jamait-i-Uiema-lslam (JUI) led by Maulana Fazlur Rehman for the Afghan refugees. Subsequently the Pak ISI took over these institutions and extended training, moral and material support to Taliban. The movement was very well planned to exploit religious sentiments of Islamic countries and Islamic organisations. This also paved way for easy recruitment and funds from international Islamic community. Taliban in Afghanistan is unique in the sense that it is not the product of a national movement like its predecessor, the Mujahidin, which waged a war against the Soviet Union and its Afghan puppets. The Taliban is a force created by the Pakistan with the twin purposes of containing Iran and diluting, and eventually weakening, Russian influence in its former Muslim-majority republic. The implicit aim is to preserve Pakistans influence over Afghanistan as the Taliban is dependent on Pakistan for logistics and military training and on the UAE for funds. Pakistan aimed following major advantages by Pakistan by supporting Taliban are:- (a) Militarily subdue and defeat the Tajik and Uzbek ethnic militias, bring Afghanistan under Taliban rule and thereby secure the Kabul-Salang-Kunduz highway, the major artery leading to Central Asian Republics. (b) Seek diplomatic international recognition for Taliban and orchestrate its future actions in consonance with her own interests. (c) Gain strategic depth vis-a-vis India. (d) Maintain Taliban as an anti India instrument for reigniting the Kashmir insurgency.  [15]  

Friday, January 17, 2020

Hrm 531 Training and Mentoring Program

Training & Mentoring Program Student HRM 531 April 4, 2011 Instructor Training and Mentoring The merger between InterClean and EnviroTech is fast approaching. Our two companies will soon be crossed trained in various functions and positions within the newly formed organization. We have individuals from both organizations who have strong sales and leadership skills. In addition, InterClean executives need to balance growth and sustained success both locally and worldwide. In order to do that, it is necessary to establish a training program for the newly formed sales team. Cascio (2005) explains that identifying content, design, types of learners and what it will do for InterClean are some of the targets to reach for. The real measure however, Cascio explains, lies in the results obtained, in this case how well we perform as a sales team (page 317). As we move forward in this memo, we will explain the importance of evaluating the value of the training program. Since this is a step-by-step process we will break the subjects into the following areas, assessment, training, capabilities, implementation and evaluation. Assessment of the Training Needs The goal of training assessment needs is to identify areas where the new sales team will need additional support. For instance, since this new sales team is a meld of experienced sales representatives from both organizations, each sales representative has his/her unique style and ability. The next few paragraphs will identify and talk about the training needs identified. Training – Orientation First, InterClean believes that an employee orientation is in order. Introducing our new sales associates to InterClean procedures and methods of operations and expectations will answer many pending questions. Although some of the newly formed team are from InterClean, it is important to have everyone in the sales team be included in the orientation training. Cascio (2005) believes that there are three major areas in which to focus when providing an orientation: Company Standards, Social Climate, and Technical Aspects (page 317). Specifically, job performance skills identified within the team include familiarization with InterClean standards and expectations. These standards and expectations, including company goals, are not the same as when InterClean began and it is imperative that all sales team members attend this training. This will allow employees understand company policies, goals and expectations. The topic of social climate allows for the team to understand the group dynamics and hopefully begin blending of customs, attitudes and behaviors. Training in technical aspects will give all sales team members an advantage as they will be fully prepared to answer questions about both products and services as well as demonstrate use. All team members are expected to complete the Orientation training since the dynamics of the company are changing. Training – Customer Service Customer Service training has been identified as one of the most crucial training areas within the InterClean sales team. There are several members of the new team who have excellent customer service skills. They will however, need to consider how to maintain consistent communication with the customer so that one sales associate will provide the same service as the next. Having a positive relationship with the customer will provide a solid foundation which will help the sales team focus on â€Å"helping the customer† vs. â€Å"selling to the customer. † This concept will help InterClean realize the 40% growth expected through the merger of the two companies. Cascio (2005) suggests that improving customer satisfaction, identifying customer needs, satisfaction and building better customer responsiveness is a paramount to improving the bottom line (page 292). All employees are expected to complete the Customer Service Training. Training – Team Building The new sales team will be learning to face challenges together and work as a cohesive, organized team. To reach this goal, it is imperative that the sales team, including management, undergo team building training. Providing training for everyone in the sales team, team members can learn behaviors that will help each other. For instance, asking for help is sometimes hard, yet working within a team it is imperative that we have that ability. We lean on each other for ideas, creativity, technical skills and input. It is so important to consider the ideas of others; brainstorming often fosters free thinking, ideas, and asking questions. (Cascio 2005 pg. 288) Training – Leadership & Record Keeping Training in leadership will be offered to the Vice President of Sales, Sales Manager and the Trainer/Outside Sales Representative. The training sessions for the three individuals will focus on team building and leadership. The VP of Sales and the Manager need additional training in record keeping. Organizational Capabilities InterClean has the resources to complete the above described training. The Vice President of HR has developed a strategy plan which will align the two companies with the most qualified individuals. This plan includes a detailed job analysis, skills assessment and a selection of the top members of the sales force. In addition, HR has developed a training program based on the training needs of InterClean. Statement of the Training Objectives Orientation Objectives †¢ Increase awareness of company goals, expectations and vision †¢ Employees will develop a sense of purpose and focus Provide employees with latest rules and regulations related to products and services †¢ Provide a record of training in company standards, expectations, method of operation and regulations related to products and services Customer Training Objectives †¢ Increase customer satisfaction through improved business relationships with the customer †¢ Increase repeat business through higher level of customer satisfaction †¢ Increase consistency between sale s associates so all customers receive identical core services †¢ Increase sales by 10% first year and 40% by end of second year Record Keeping Objectives Introduce methods related to maintaining accounts †¢ Increase record keeping accuracy Team Building Objectives †¢ Allow team to get to know each other †¢ Emphasize individual leadership and initiative †¢ Increase interdependence and thereby cooperation †¢ Give team members tools to help problem solve Method of Implementation The training program will be announced within the next seven days. The course will be outlined over a two-day period with follow up sessions available for product information and sales. Three sessions (Orientation, Customer Training and Team Building) will include the entire sales force, while Record Keeping training will include VP of Sales, Sales Manager and the Trainer (for a portion thereof). Methods of Instruction †¢ Seminar †¢ PowerPoint †¢ Group exercises †¢ Role Playing †¢ Guest speakers (product development, laws & regulations, EnviroTech) Instructors †¢ Janet Durham – leadership and previous sales skills †¢ Tom Jennings – Planning for global dominance †¢ Sally Lindley – Partnerships Training Location †¢ EnviroTech facility Duration of Training 2 full days, with 1 week breakout sessions tailored to mentor students Record Keeping (related to training) †¢ Sign in Sheets †¢ Copy of each presentation †¢ Duration of training †¢ Document of videos, speakers, etc †¢ Video tape training sessions where appropriate Evaluation of the Program’s Success Assess Potential Suc cess We will be able to assess the potential success of the training program through several avenues. One being a series of feedback from the attendees. In addition, pre-test to measure knowledge, skills and ability prior to training and post-tests to evaluate increase knowledge, skills and ability after training. As trainees venture into role-playing and practicing with the techniques, they will begin to discover potential pitfalls and relative improvements. Demonstration of techniques learned is crucial to success. Another measurable activity will be an increase in the number of sales. The overall success of the training program will be evident in the increase in profits. Reinforcements †¢ Rewards for reaching sales goals, both individual and group †¢ Promotion to senior levels, stability on the senior level is determined by consistently meeting goals. Conclusion As the training program evolves, so do the employees. With the strong leadership and sales skill present within the team, success is immanent. However, the success of the sales team is only as good as the training and support system provided by InterClean. In this memo we have outlined the training program we believe will assist the new team to take on the challenge of both product and service and provide the customer with everything they need. Reference Cascio, W. F. (2005). Managing Human Resources (7th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

A Book About Life, Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay

â€Å"Catcher in the Rye† by J.D. Salinger is, in simplest terms, a book about life. A novel about what it means to exist, to be human, and to live – and a sixteen-year-old boy mercilessly critical of the world of 1950’s New York he lives in. The movies, the music, the people are all meaningless to him, even despicable. He hates the way life works – the divisions between the rich and the poor, the endless walking in circles and the inability to understand one’s purpose. Holden feels that life is sad and empty because of unfair economic inequities, the fragmentation of society into different groups and the boringness of adult life. Firstly, Holden finds existence sad and melancholy because of unjust economic inequities. He doesn’t want anyone†¦show more content†¦Another way of dividing people and adding sadness to their lives, according to Holden, is the fragmentation of society into different groups. In his opinion, such groups are automatically ‘phony’ because individuals don’t have the freedom to express their own views and opinions. Wanting to feel accepted by society is human nature, and Holden’s opinion is that being in a group strips you of your real opinion and intelligence and makes you into a herd animal, being forced to do what the group does. Holden thinks that groups, or ‘cliques’, force people to conform into a certain stereotype and do not allow individuality, and this saddens him. In chapter 17 he explains to Sally how prevalent these groups are in boys’ schools – â€Å"Everybody sticks together in those dirty little goddam cliques. The guys that are on the basketball team stick together, the Catholics stick together, the goddam intellectuals stick together, the guys that play bridge stick together. Even the guys that belong to the goddam Book-Of-The-Month Club stick together. If you try to have a little intelligent [conversation]†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Salinger 131). Here, Holden explains how there can’t be any real intelligence or independent thought when society is fragmented into groups. I, however, do not agree with Holden – I think that a true intelligent individual will think independently of groups, and society is lessShow MoreRelatedThe Importance of Censoring in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger1145 Words   |  5 PagesJ.D. Salinger was an American author well known for his best seller The Catcher in the Rye, a considerably influential novel that portrayed the feelings of alienation that were experienced by adolescents in North America after World War II (J.D. Salinger Biograph y). Salinger’s work appeared in many magazines, including a series of short stories which inspired many new authors (J.D. Salinger Biography). His inspiration for Pencey Prep boarding school in The Catcher in the Rye stemmed from hisRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Salinger And Holden Caulfield1671 Words   |  7 PagesIn the book, â€Å"The Catcher in the Rye†, Holden Caulfield has many conflicts and life lessons. Throughout the story the author, J.D. Salinger, creates events that make the main character realize that in life people change and grow. The message behind the story is let children grab the â€Å"gold ring† and you can’t always be the catcher in the rye. All of the things that make Holden who he is have many resemblances to the life of the author, J.D. Salinger.   Ã‚  Ã‚   One of the similarities between Holden andRead MoreHolden Caulfield of Catcher In the Rye, the equivalent portrayal of J.D Salinger1734 Words   |  7 PagesHolden Caulfield of Catcher In the Rye, the equivalent portrayal of J.D Salinger Jerome David â€Å"J.D† Salinger’s masterpiece, The Catcher in the Rye, is a world to the disillusioned protagonist Holden Caulfield. The story follows Holden Caulfield following his eviction from his private school, Holden leaves school two days early to travel New York before returning home. He interconnected with many different folks along the way and fascinatingly, the character of Holden Caulfield holds a remarkableRead More salinger Essay843 Words   |  4 Pages LIFE AND PHILOSOPHY OF J.D. SALINGER J.D. Salinger is one of the most renowned writers of his time. J. D. Salinger is most known for his controversial in the Catcher in the Rye. Salinger is also known for many of his writings such as Franney and Zooey, Nine Stories, and Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters. The summer of 1930 he was voted â€Å"The Most Popular Writer†. â€Å"Salinger is a beautifully deft, professional who gives us a chance to catch quick, half-amused, half-frightened glimpses ofRead MoreJ.D. Salinger is Holden Caulfield1666 Words   |  7 Pages Jerome David Salinger is an odd character with a colorful background. He was a young man unable to complete college and obtain a degree, yet he was made very popular due to his writing abilities. â€Å"Despite his slim body of work and reclusive lifestyle, ‘Salinger’ was one of the more influential twentieth century American writers.† states, â€Å"His landmark novel, Catcher in the Rye, set a new course for litera ture in post World War II America.† The Catcher in the Rye told a story ofRead MoreF. Salinger s The Catcher s The Rye 1614 Words   |  7 Pagesshelves, also the best novel read in class. The Catcher in the Rye is a novel commonly found on psychopaths’ shelves and no one has ever found out why. It is a remarkable novel that has been banned in the past but is also studied today in schools around the world. In Mr. Capilongo’s grade 9 AP English class, three novels were read following the theme of â€Å"The teen experience†: To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, and The Chrysalids, by John Wyndham. The classRead MoreAnalysis Of Characters And Themes Of The Catcher Rye 1537 Words   |  7 Pages Analysis of Characters and Themes in The Catcher in the Rye J.D. Salinger was born in 1919 to a wealthy Manhattan family. He grew up in the same social conditions as Holden Caulfield does in The Catcher in the Rye. The last thing Salinger cared about was being a successful student because he was very lazy, without care for his responsibilities and tasks. Salinger flunked out of many prep schools, and his parents sent him to a military academy named Valley Forge in Pennsylvania, where he graduatedRead MoreSummary Of Salinger s The Catcher Rye And Franny And Zooey 1966 Words   |  8 PagesSpecifically, J.D. Salinger. He is a well-known author who has wrote many influential books such as The Catcher in the Rye and Franny and Zooey. Salinger’s childhood, education, significant people, major influences,and historical events have all had an impact on how he became the face of a literary movement as well as his contributions to the art of American Literature. Jerome David Salinger was born on January 1, 1919 in New York CIty. His mother, Mariam Salinger, and father, Sol Salinger, also hadRead MoreThe Catcher in the Rye Essay1442 Words   |  6 PagesThis paper proposes to delineate the characteristics of Holden Caulfield, the adolescent protagonist hero of J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye and illuminate the reasons as to why this prototype of brooding adolescence, displaying a rather uber-cool style of disaffection, disenchantment and disillusionment became an indispensable figure of interest, in literary circles as well as popular culture. The paper seeks to take issue with the wider dimensions attached to the ‘incapacitation and debilitation’Read MoreAlienation and Isolation in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger700 Words   |  3 PagesTouch with Society In The Catcher in the Rye, J.D. Salinger discusses the ideas of alienation and isolation. He notes that if one is unable to keep up with society they lose touch. Salinger portrays alienation and isolation through literary devices such as symbolism. Some of the symbolic features use in the novel is Holden’s red hunting hat which shows Holden’s uncommon desire compared to society’s desires. Another significant symbolic feature is the catcher in the rye; this represents Holden’s idea

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Impact of Race in Othello Essay - 1267 Words

Impact of Race in Othello One of the major issues in Shakespeares Othello is the impact of the race of the main character, Othello. His skin color is non-white, usually portrayed as African although some productions portray him as an Arabian. Othello is referred to by his name only seventeen times in the play. He is referred to as The Moor fifty-eight times. Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) states that a Moor is Any individual of the swarthy races of Africa or Asia which have adopted the Mohammedan religion. In Spanish history the terms Moo, Saracens, and Arabs are synonymous. This indicates that Othello is constantly being degraded and set up as an evil person throughout the play. What this really means is that†¦show more content†¦Shakespeare occasionally used the word to mean brunette or just dark-complected1. Roderigos comment that he has thick lips indicates that he is of African descent, though (1.1.67). Using the modern understanding of these references, Othello would most likely be portrayed as an African on modern stage or film. Othello himself was a slave before he was an important military official (1.3.137). However, he wasnt sold into slavery as most African slaves were. He was captured by the enemy and forced into slavery as a prisoner of war. Hence, the slavery of the play and of the time is viewed as a financial or military misfortune rather than a racial inferiority which would be commonly accepted for several hundred years after the play was written. Black and slave were not interchangeable terms at the time as it was during Americas early history. European slaves were commonly Tartar, Greek, Armenian, Russian, Bulgarian, Turkish, Circassian, Slavonic, Cretan, Arab, or African. As if to distance the issue of slavery even further, it was often portrayed as happening long ago or far away on the English Renaissance stage2. As Shakespeare wrote the play, feudalism was eroding, but it was still strong in the minds of the audience. Slavery is very similar to feudalism in that they both involve the lower c lasses being subject to higher classes. Slavery had to be distanced from the English in order to not be threatening and to reassure themShow MoreRelatedDiscuss how age, social position and race impact the relationship between Othello and Desdemona749 Words   |  3 Pagesposition and race impact the relationship between Othello and Desdemona? â€Å"She loved me for the dangers I had passd, And I loved her that she did pity them This only is the witchcraft I have used.† –Othello (act 1, scene 3, 167-169) Othello and Desdemona’s manifestly love-filled relationship was somewhat shielded by society’s views of the age, social position and race differences, that would evidently cause implications. In the late sixteenth century, the time in which Othello is based, itRead MoreComparison between Othello and Skin1414 Words   |  6 Pagestexts Othello and Skin. To what extent are the differences between the two texts treatment of this theme due to their different historical and cultural contexts? Othello and Skin are both excellent examples of how the outsider is topic in which society is intrigued by. Both Sandra and Othello are both victims of their time and geographical setting, as well as being considered different due to their race and achievements. Although there are a great number of common themes through both Othello andRead MoreOthello – Race and Stereotypes Essay637 Words   |  3 PagesOthello’s race does not prominently impact his demise, although Shakespeare touches upon the issue of race, the reason for Othello’s demise lies somewhere else. However, the allegations of race directly lead to its tragic ending. Feelings of inadequacy and distrust without question aid in the tragedy. The fact that Othello’s skin color is important alters the interpretation of the tragedy within the play. The racism represented in Othello is not just about an instance of prejudices and prejudgmentsRead MoreRacism in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay123 5 Words   |  5 PagesHave you ever thought about how much Othello’s race and the racism around him affected his life? Othello struggled a lot during the play because of his dark skin color. He was called several racist names like â€Å"the Moor,† â€Å"old black ram,† â€Å"Barbary horse,† and â€Å"thick lips† (Shakespeare 1.1.40; 1.1.88; 1.1.111; 1.1.66).The term â€Å"racism† has been around for several years; it started in the twentieth century (Bartels 433). By the way the Elizabethan era viewed black people was similar to how racism isRead MoreRacial Discrimination In Othello1076 Words   |  5 Pagesmainstream society. In William Shakespeare’s Othello, the protagonist, Othello is isolated from the rest of Venetian society because of racism. Racial discrimination is common throughout the dialogue of the play, as almost all characters have directed racial slurs towards Othello. Iago, the antagonist, is able to take advantage of Othello’s insecurities and vulnerabilities about his race and convince him of Desdemona’s infidelity. Other’s verbal comments on Othello and his own sense of reputation speedRead MoreOthello, The Moor Of Venice, Is One Of The Principal Tragedies1180 Words   |  5 PagesOthello, the Moor of Venice, is one of the principal tragedies by Shakespeare. This tragedy contains many themes which are important in society today. Many aspects of people s lives have changed, but the way people think is still the same . Shakespeare s Othello wants to underline the psychological and social impact of racism; and the power of manipulation as well as jealousy. These are the most important themes throughout this drama. Othello takes place in Venice, Italy. He was a black generalRead MoreRacial Integrity Act Of 1924 And Mildred Loving1479 Words   |  6 Pagesexamples of when the status quo of race has been challenged. This couple, along with others, disregarded the norm of opposing interracial relationships, and above all chose love as the only thing that matters. In the play, Othello by William Shakespeare, the book Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, and the article, â€Å"The Meaning Of Serena Williams† by Claudia Rankine, race is a major topic, and it is continuously argued in different ways. The status quo of race is challenged in these writtenRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello, The Moor1720 Words   |  7 PagesThe Tragedy of Othello, the Moor the Venice: The Fall of A Man for His Race by Josà © Pineda. Professor Arzola English 2322 5 July 2015 Outline. Thesis: The tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice written by William Shakespeare, the author uses a characters to express the complex social circumstance of race at the time and how the white men’s ideas about black people leads to their hate and downfalls throughout the play. Sociological Approach. I. Summary plot. II. Description of the mainRead MoreOthello Research Paper1226 Words   |  5 PagesCarly Niedert Dr. Helen Davis English 120 1 December 2011 Othello In the play Othello written by Shakespeare, the issue of racism is addressed. Othello, the protagonist of the play, is African American or black. â€Å"According to Lois Whitney, many of Othello’s specific attributes probably derive from Shakespeare’s reading of Leo Africanus, whose Geographical Historie of Africa which was translated and published in London in 1600†(Berry, 1990). Many critics have different views on this. â€Å"If ShakespeareRead MoreExploring the Causes of the Tragedy of Shakespeare ´s Othello1014 Words   |  4 Pagesunfavorable circumstances. In the play Othello, William Shakespeare uses the literary device characterization in sequence to convey that Othello’s tragic flaw is the main reason that brings Othello to his downfall --- death. The causes of the tragedy of Othello are Othello’s gullibility to Iago, jealousy of Desdemona’s affair, and male pride. To begin, one factor that causes Othello’s downfall is that he is characterized by gullibility. Firstly, Othello is tricked by Iago, who leads him to believe