Thursday, October 31, 2019

Current topic 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Current topic 2 - Essay Example This will pose a barrier because it will be difficult to convince them beyond doubts that the existing policies are of no use, or there are better alternatives. Policy change may not only entail existing ones, but also those policies being proposed of implemented. For example, NYC schools are providing birth control to students who are requesting the service in the school health clinic (Edelman & Fagen, 2012). This policy is not good for students because of some reasons. First, providing birth control pills and condoms to students who are under 18 years means endorsing sexual behavior among students. Therefore, this health policy will be encouraging immorality among students where sex is allowed provided it does not end up in pregnancy. Even though the local department provides these services, it will be doing so illegally because birth control services are meant for adults. There is, therefore, no justification for the policy to be implemented in school even though there is somewhere else where students can access such services (Guttmacher Institute, 2012). If money were not an issue for students, it would still remain unethical to have free birth control in a school environment. The act cannot be justified under any circumstances because bi rth control among teenagers or students in school will never be a universal

Tuesday, October 29, 2019


IN WHAT WAYS AND TO WHAT EFFECT IS 'GENRE' QUESTIONED IN IF ON A WINTER' S NIGHT A TRAVELLER', BY ITALO CALVINO - Essay Example (Broderick, 2000, p.11) The novel in question employs a radical new narrative structure, where not only are events shuffled across time-scales, but also the narrative perspectives. In conventional novel structures, either a first-person or a third-person narratives are used consistently through-out the work (with varying degrees of omniscience on part of the narrator). But in If On A Winter's... address to the second-person is made, bringing a new dimension of reader-interactivity that was unimagined previously. For example, the first line of the novel goes â€Å"You are about to begin reading Italo Calvino's new novel, If on a winter's night a traveller. Relax. Let the world around you fade." (Calvino, 1981, p.3) Here the reference is both directly to the reader as well as the novel itself; which could be construed as the mathematical equivalent of fractals. In this respect, the novel is avant-garde, making it one of its kind. In the novel, ten other novels are embedded, â€Å"all of them echoing aspects of the surrounding diegetic story. Strictly speaking, none of these ten constitutes a true novel en abyme, since what they double is local aspects of the story, not continuous aspects, as called for by the criteria of mise-en-abyme. But there are two nested texts which do meet the criteria fully, though neither is actually presented but, like Dampfboot’s, merely described.† (McHale, 1987, p. 125) Even within serious literature, certain distinct genres can be identified. These include, Social-realism (as exposited by Charles Dickens, V.S. Naipaul and Dorris Lessing); Magic-realism (Salman Rushdie being its chief exponent in modern times); Satire (Evelyn Waugh and the early novels of Aldous Huxley); Meta-physical enquiries (Iris Murdoch and Huxley's later novels); Feminist novels (Dorris Lessing and Margaret Atwood being leading lights of this genre) and Marxist Realism (George Orwell's early works and numerous Russian authors). (Mullan, 2006, p.7 7) Given Calvino's experiences in childhood, as well as his father's involvement with Communist causes, it would be a natural inclination for him to adopt the Social Realism or Marxist Realism genres. Indeed, Calvino has successfully explored and mastered these genres in other works. But what makes If On A Winter's... unique and places it outside these well-trodden genres are the following aspects. First, the novel carries a labyrinthine and looping narrative structure, whereby the reader is continuously taken from one embedded novel lead to another, without ever resolving any of the started leads. (Tandello, 2007, p.537) Second, the employment of second person reference, adds a whole new dynamic to the reading experience, making it more personal, interactive and involving. The work lucidly shows how a text can signify subjective experiences of the reader by immersing him/her in a â€Å"process of identification† (Fludernik, 1994, p.525). For example, the text addresses the r eader directly as one of the characters in the plot. As a result, â€Å"it foregrounds, as conventional narrations do not, the extent to which your subjectivity as a reader depends upon identification with the signifier you. An effaced narrating agency makes itself apparent only indirectly in the form of imperatives and questions.† (Cohan & Shires, 1988, p.150) Third, the novel is a detailed introspection on the process of writing itself, taking the reader through the complexities and challenges that the author

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Communication in the International Trade Environment

Communication in the International Trade Environment Communication consists of so many dimensions and is a very complex subject. While discussing communication, one has to look at several aspects regarding the subject. You have to identify different skills, components and challenges in the environment of communication, though it doesnt end there. A communication line also goes beyond the borders of your business and stretch to international companies. To successfully trade across international borders, you have to analyse the country and culture of the people whom you are trading with. You have to get a feeling for the way they do business and also for customs or manners that could offend them. People from a different background will feel honoured and will be much more open to business if they can see that you respect their ways. Because of this reason, it is also critical to look at the importance of multicultural communication in international trade. Looking at aspects such as marketing, logistics finance and payment, we discuss the important role that communication plays in todays businesses. 1.1 The importance of communication in the international trade environment To communicate is to live. It plays such a vital role in our daily existence that we can do nothing without it, but just as important as it is in our daily existence, the more so vital it is in the business environment because if the communication lines between your business and those of your partners isnt open and up to standard, it could mean the financial ruin of both entities (RANI). Communication is the successful transition of information through a common system of symbols, signs, behaviours, speech, writing or signals. (ITRISA, 2010:30). To implement successful lines of communication in your business, you have to look at all the components mentioned above. 1.1.1 The components of communication According to ITRISA, communication is made up of three components, each one just as important as the other. We look at verbal, written and non-verbal communication to grasp the importance of this complex subject. Verbal or spoken communication is important because that is the quickest way to portray your ideas and hear other peoples. It also provides room for discussion. On the other hand, it can be very difficult to arrange because of the distances between partners. It is not sufficient as means of communication because people can read just as much in the things you dont say but show. This is known as non-verbal communication and helps when words just arent enough to express yourself. Non-verbal communication is reflected in your body language and this can cause confusion. It is very important to do research before communicating face to face with people from other cultures. Your use of personal space, for example, may be offensive to them. This is a very difficult component to exerc ise and should be regarded as one of the most important factor to consider in the relationship between you and your business partners in a other country. Written communication is a very easy way to communicate less important aspects of a deal but should not be used in midst of a crisis, when problems need to be sorted out quickly and with no misunderstandings. More important decisions regarding the deal should be on paper to insure a permanent record of the agreement between the two parties. In todays corporate environment, electronic communication also takes up a major part of the methods companies use. These are just the main methods of communicating. Numerous other means of communication exists and in the end, companies should decide which method might fulfil their needs best. It should be noted that every method of communication has its own advantages but also disadvantages. The main goal when choosing a method should be the success of the deal. The method which will best fit target should be chosen in the end. Once you understand the critical importance of these components, you can start looking communication in the corporate environment. 1.1.2 Communication in the international corporate environment. Communication between employees of the same company is important. Francis Jock takes it even so far as to say that the skill of communication -or the absence thereof- can cause a business to either be successful or to fail. Let us assumes the lines are already in order. To communicate with people from another corporation tends to be slightly more difficult because other corporations may do business in a whole other way. Business partners from other environments are out of your control and are unpredictable (ITRISA: 2010, 25). A general segmentation of the kind of entities one might have to work with can be private companies, government organisations or foreign entities. For the purpose of this essay, we look particularly at the communication between you and a foreign entity. To make successful business deals, employees administering the deals between businesses of different cultural background need to understand the importance of multicultural communication. (HINNER: 2010) According to Hofstede (2001) culture consists of five dimensions. Each dimension is just as important as the other. The first dimension is uncertainty avoidance. This describes the certain cultures need to point out exact details of the transaction so that the risk of failure is minimised. Another dimension is power distance. This refers to the way people of different positions in community, treats each other. In one culture, people might be treated as exact equals while in other cultures, people in higher positions will not be treated as, say a general worker. Aggressiveness discusses the gap between genders in the business environment. Cultures might also adopt either a long or short term orientation. A Long term orientated culture will typically show casual, laid- back manners in dealings and might not be too hasty in closing a deal while the short term orientated culture will do exactly the opposite. Individualism or collectivism is the last dimension identified by Hostede (2001) . This dimension describes the cultures preferences when it comes to working in groups or as individuals. It is very important to keep these dimensions in mind when dealing with other cultures as this could mean either success or failure. 1.2. The Role communication plays in the International Trade Environment. The role of communication in the international trade environment is so important that many studies have been committed to emphasizing and analysing this role. Models to help companies interpret communication in their daily business environment have been created. Databases, statistics and other information has been collected on this subject (GRIFFITH: 2002). It is difficult to ignore the role of communication. According to ITRISA, communication plays a big role in three main aspects of the general business. A discussion of logistics, marketing, finance and payment, follows. 1.2.1. Logistics Though there are many events that can happen which a company has no control over, the role of human error in logistics are a major problem. Communicating various details about a consignment and its shipping specifications is a major part of the success of the business deal. Employees need to make sure that both ends of the partners understand each other when making decisions about the obligations regarding delivery, the costs each partner is liable to carry and freight insurance. To achieve a clear understanding of the responsibilities of each party, there should be good communication between the importer, exporter, inspection officers, and various banks involved, customs authority in both countries, agents and insurers. 1.2.2. Financing and payment of international trade deals Without funds and the proper management necessary, international trade will not be possible. Before entering in a contract with the other company, you have to make sure that the financing on your side is guaranteed. To acquire this financing, proposals to your financer and motivation behind your proposed deals have to be in order. Only after this, you can commit yourself to a partnership with the foreign company. Once this partnership has been established, the two businesses should communicate so that they will be aware of their exact obligations regarding payment, due dates for this payments, the manner in which funds will be forwarded etc. It is important to verify these details so that the financial risk regarding the deal can be minimised. 1.2.3 Marketing Marketing must be the most essential of the three roles because without marketing, you cannot create a market for your product. Without this market, there would be no demand for your product and therefore, no international trade. A company should communicate with affiliates in other countries, get information from them and get to know their clients. One should be very careful not to offend potential customers and thereby stopping the deal even before it could realise. The absence of communication in marketing had previously led to many business deals gone wrong and it is important to get to know the culture of prospecting clients before trying to sell something to them.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Nucor Case Analysis :: Finance Business Essays

Nucor Case Analysis Case summary: Nucor is the world’s largest recycler, recycling over 10 million tons of scrap steel annually. Nucor descended from auto manufacturer Ransom E. Olds, who founded Oldsmobile. The company evolved into the Nuclear Corporation of America, which was involved in the nuclear instrument and electronics business in the 50’s and early 60’s. Over the next five years, Valley Sheet Metal, Vulcraft Corporation and U.S. Semi-conductor Products joined the Nuclear Corporation. After suffering several money-losing years, in 1964 F. Kenneth Iverson was installed as president. Management then decided to integrate backwards into steel making, and in 1972 they adopted the name Nucor. Since then Nucor has established itself as a leader in the steel industry through efficiency and innovation. It now employs more than 7,000 people worldwide and has experienced tremendous growth under its new CEO Daniel R. DiMicco. SWOT Analysis Strengths †¢ Low Cost Producer †¢ Employee/Manager ial Relations Leading Innovator †¢ Low Debt Load †¢ Overall industry leader Weaknesses Dependency on scrap metal Company Profile - Nucor Corporation is the largest steel producer in the United States and had net sales of $11.3 billion in 2004. -Nucor's origins are with auto manufacturer Ransom E. Olds, who founded Oldsmobile and then Reo Motor Cars. -The reorganization resulted in restructuring and eliminating money-losing businesses which left only the steel joist business called Vulcraft -Vulcraft operated in Florence, South Carolina and Norfolk, Nebraska -Management then decided to integrate backwards into steelmaking by building its first steel mill in Darlington, South Carolina in 1968 -In 1972 the company adopted the name Nucor Corporation -By 1985 Nucor was the seventh largest steel company Situational Analysis General External Environment ï  ¶Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sociocultural - Nonunion workers got paid more than 85% of the states they worked in -Recycled more than 10 millions tons of scrap metal annually ï  ¶Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Technological -Began using a twin shell electric furnace to increase production and lower costs and increase market share -Developed and implemented strip casting overseas to eliminate a step in the steel making process ï  ¶Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Demographic -Economic slow down in early 90’s led to a decreased demand for steel -By 1995 the steel industry was the best it was for 20 years ï  ¶Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Economic -Import values decreased for all steel products from 1998 to 1999 -U.S. steel producers facing higher energy costs ï  ¶Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Global -Increasingly tough environmental rules -Cheaper imports for steel Industry Analysis – Nucor has established itself as a leader in the steel industry through efficiency and innovation. Industry Driving Forces of Change ïÆ' ¼Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Increased demand on a global scale due to increase in manufacturing across the world, opposite in U.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Are Asians higher performing than Caucasians

Asian Americans are portrayed in the spotlight of being more successful in both school and the work field than Caucasian Americans. They are raised upon higher standards than children of Caucasian parents and tend to excelled in all aspects of life. With the high expectations placed on them by their parents and peers, Asian Americans tend to be pushed harder to be more prosperous in life. The stereotype of Asians doing better in school, being held to higher standards with their parents, and more success in life, is supported through the evidence of grade point averages and observers of Asian American families.Asian students in high school tend to earn better grades than most Caucasian students. Asian American students try to push themselves in school by taking higher level courses than required by the school. With those harder classes, students of the Asian American race on average spend more time studying and doing homework than students of the Caucasian race. Working in the homewor k room of an afterschool program, I help children with homework and see what they are working on. Many of the Asian children in the afterschool program have extra homework that they receive from a class they  take at night called Kumon.Kumon is a class that children take to help increase their success in school by learning higher level math and English than what is taught at their public school. Siddha, one of the Asian kindergarteners at the Williams Martial Arts and Fitness after school program takes Kumon classes. He is successfully reading small sentences and doing addition and subtraction problems at the level of a second grader, if not a little bit higher.Children of Asian parents usually have less of a choice when it comes to extracurricular activities and their social life. Asian parents typically make their children spend more time studying and doing schoolwork and do not allow them to spend much time with friends outside of school. Aside from school, most of the extracur ricular activities done by Asian Americans are more focus on intelligence and knowledge rather than enjoyment and socializing.Many Asian American children learn to play the piano or violin as supposed to participating in sports such as soccer or basketball. Asian parents tend to instill better morals in their children as supposed to those instilled in Caucasian children. According to the article from USA Today, â€Å"Study: Asian Americans value hard work, family† more Caucasian children are born to unwed woman then Asian American children.The hard work of Asian Americans is typically shown through a more successful and enjoyable life after completing their education. The article from USA Today stated, â€Å"Asians as a whole have a median household income of $66,000 (half make more, half less) compared with the U.S. median of $49,800.† With that being said, Indians (still considered Asian Americans) make the highest median household income based on race at $88,000 per year.These statistics show the success in school results in higher paying jobs after college than people of the Caucasian race. Asian Americans set themselves up for more success in life through their work ethic and doing everything to the best of their abilities and household income is just one example of how they succeed in life more than the average Caucasian American.All of the examples used in explaining the stereotypes of Asians are all connected through good work ethic instilled by their parents. Yes, they tend to get higher grades, but they also are taught to spend more time studying and are put into knowledge enhancing extracurricular activities. All of these combined lead to a happier and overall more successful life because they put in the hard work to get higher up into the career world and continue to work hard to keep their position.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

How to Meet Service Users Needs Essay

In this report the service users I am going to be focused on is disabled people and how Ealing promotes diversity. The legislation that relates to disabled people is the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. This act makes it unlawful to discriminate against disabled people. This legislation is designed to: * Make sure that people who have a disability get their medical needs * Makes sure that service providers access for disabled people by making reasonable adjustments * Ensure the rights of people with disabilities with regard to employment, access to education, transport, housing, facilities and services. This group of service users might be at risk of discrimination because of their disability. For example, an employer refuses to employ someone even though they are suitable for the job, because they are in a wheelchair. This is direct disability discrimination. Another example, they may be a policy applies to all individuals in a work place, puts those who share the same disability at a particular disadvantage when compared with those who don’t share it. This is indirect discrimination. Carers must take responsibility and work with service users without discriminating against them. A health and social worker is very important in a disabled person’s life, and they play an important role because they make sure that they are in safety at all times. (They may be someone that is partially deaf, so she needs her hearing aid to communicate with people. So a health and social worker will probably show her how to put her hearing aid in effectively and keep them clean, or the health and social worker may do it for them) A health and social care worker needs to help them maintain their dignity so that they keep their self-respect. The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) and The Disability Discrimination Act (2005) organisations to protect individuals from being discriminated against in employment, education and management activities. They also protect people from discrimination in facilities and services. In 2002, the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 were introduced. This Act requires schools, colleges, universities, adult education providers and youth services to take the same steps as other service providers in ensuring that they do not discriminate against disabled people and make reasonable adjustments to their services and premises. The Codes of Practice provide a clear guide to the standards of practice and conduct that all those who work in UK social care should meet. Every social care worker should have a copy  of the Codes. It is important that social care workers and their employers understand how the Codes link with other care standards. The types of health care workers that support this group are nurses, doctors, home care workers and support workers. These health care workers work in a hospital, or they come to your house and support you from your home. GSCC makes sure that service user’s rights are protected. In the GCSS Code of Conduct it says that Social Care workers must: * Protect the rights and promote the interests of service users and carers (treating each person as an individual and supporting service users’ rights to control their lives) * Strive and establish and maintain the trust and confidence of service users and carers (being honest and trustworthy, and communicating in a appropriate, accurate and straightforward way) * Promote the independence of service users white protecting them as far as possible from danger or harm (promoting the independence of service users and assisting them to understand and exercise their rights) * Respect the rights of service users whilst seeking to ensure that their behaviour does not harm themselves or other people (Taking necessary steps to minimise the risks of service users from doing actual or potential harm to themselves or other people) * Be accountable for the equality of their work and take responsibility for maintaining and improving their knowledge and skills. Ealing promotes diversity. For example, they have provided ramps at the back of all Ealing buses for people with wheelchairs so they are able to get on. This would make them feel like they are just as important as someone that can walk, as they are just important. Also, a Freedom Pass is provided by Ealing borough to give older and disabled people free travel on almost all public transport in London. Ealing is also giving three disabled people the chance to make their voices heard at this autumn’s political party conferences. They are willing to pay for a conference pass and travel costs for one disabled campaigner at each of the Liberal Democrat, Labour and  Conservative conferences. A pass and travel for a carer can also be arranged if extra support would help them to attend the conference. I think this is very good because it shows that the community cares about what disabled people think as well, in result I feel that disabled people will feel very happy & important. There is also The Willow Tree PlusBus service which offers dedicated journeys, mostly for shopping and leisure purposes, from the Islip Manor area. There’s The PlusBus service that is available for disabled people who cannot use public transport. Ealing also has a couple of day centres for disabled people. Like for example, Carlton Road Centre is a council-run day service for adults with learning disabilities. The service provides support to adult’s learning disabilities. The centre provides art, games, independent living skills, health promotion, a sensory room, community based projects, speech and language therapy, physiotherapy and music therapy. The service is provided to promote and support people to become more independent and access their community through community-based projects. There is also The Michael Flanders Centre. This is a day care for residents over the age of 65 with physical disabilities or sensory impairment . The centre’s aim is to enable older people with physical disabilities to live as independently as possible in their community. These day centres promote diversity because they are providing centres for disabled people that have disabilities. I think the disabled people that attend these day centres feel equal & accepted because it shows that Ealing cares about them & if they didn’t they wouldn’t have day centres available. Also, it’s a great way for disabled people to make friends because there’s going to be people there that are just like them & they can relate to what they go through in life. I think that if these services were not in place, there would be no diversity in Ealing whatsoever. I think that disabled people in Ealing will feel like their individual rights have not been met. If there were no ramps on buses, then disabled people will feel like they’re not being respected and that they’re not able to use preferred methods to travel. This will make them feel useless. They may be disabled but they have places to attend and people to see just like everyone else. I think that these services are all good. However, it’s hard for people that are in crutches or wheelchairs to walk up and down the stairs in a tube station. So if a person that was unable to walk, and they had no one there to support them I think they will feel like the individual rights have not been met (to be treated equally and not be discriminate and to be respected) So to improve the service I would suggest for them to install stair lifts. A stair lift is a motorized seat that runs up and down a staircase on a track / rail. Stair lifts are also known as ‘stair elevators’, ‘inclinators’ ‘stair chairs’, ‘staircase lifts’. Or they could get Stair climbers. These are operated by an assistant or carer and are designed to climb up and down a flight of stairs. They are not attached to the staircase so they can be transported and used on different staircases.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Fennec Fox Facts (Vulpes zerda)

Fennec Fox Facts (Vulpes zerda) The fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) is known for its huge ears and diminutive size. It is the smallest member of the canid (dog) family. Whether the fennec truly belongs in the genus Vulpes is debated because it has fewer chromosome pairs than other fox species, lives in packs while other foxes are solitary, and has different scent glands. Sometimes fennec foxes are known by the scientific name Fennecus zerda. Its common name comes from the Berber-Arabic word fanak, which means fox. Fast Facts: Fennec Fox Scientific Name: Vulpes zerdaCommon Names: Fennec fox, fennecBasic Animal Group: MammalSize: 9.5-16 inch body plus a 7-12 inch tailWeight: 1.5-3.5 poundsLifespan: 10-14 yearsDiet: OmnivoreHabitat: North Africa and the Sahara DesertPopulation: StableConservation Status: Least Concern Description The fennec foxs most distinctive feature is its large ears, which may measure 6 inches. The ears help the fox identify prey at night and dissipate heat during the day. The fox is small, with a body ranging from 9 to 16 inches in length, plus a bushy 7 to 12 inch tail. Adults weigh between 1.5 and 3.5 pounds. The fennecs thick coat is cream-colored with a black-tipped tail. The fluffy coat insulates the fox against temperatures that range from below freezing at night to over 100 F during the day. Fur covers their paws, protecting them from getting burned by hot sand and improving traction on shifting dunes. Fennec foxes lack musk glands found in other fox species, but have glands on their tail tips that produce a musky odor when the fox is startled. Habitat and Distribution Fennec foxes live in North Africa and Asia. They range from Morocco to Egypt, south to northern Niger, and east to Israel and Kuwait. The foxes are most at home in sand dunes, but they will live where soil is compacted, too. Diet Foxes are omnivores. Fennec foxes are nocturnal hunters that use their sensitive ears to detect the movement of small underground prey. They eat rodents, insects, birds and their eggs, and also fruit and other plants. Fennecs will drink free water, but dont require it. They get their water from food, plus digging in the ground causes dew formation that the animals can lick. Behavior Fennec foxes communicate using a wide variety of sounds, including a purr resembling that of a cat. Males mark territory with urine. Other fox species are mostly solitary, but fennec foxes are highly social. The basic social unit is a mated pair and their offspring for the present and previous year. The group lives in elaborate dens dug into sand or compacted soil. Fennec fox kits are born with closed eyes and folded ears. Floridapfe / Getty Images Reproduction and Offspring Fennec foxes mate once a year in January and February and give birth in March and April. Gestation typically lasts between 50 and 52 days. The female or vixen gives birth in the den to a litter of one to four kits. A birth, the kits eyes are closed and its ears are folded over. Kits are weaned by 61 to 70 days of age. The male feeds the female while she is caring for the young. Fennec foxes reach sexual maturity around nine months of age and mate for life. They have an average life expectancy of 14 years in captivity and are believed to live about 10 years in the wild. Conservation Status The IUCN classifies fennec fox conservation status as least concern. The foxes are still abundant within most of their range, so the population may be stable. The species is listed under CITES Appendix II to help protect the foxes from international trade abuse. Threats The foxs most significant natural predator is the eagle owl. Fennecs are hunted for fur and trapped for the pet trade. But, the most significant threat comes from human settlement and commercialization of the Sahara. Many foxes are killed by vehicles, plus they may suffer habitat loss and degradation. Some people keep fennec foxes as pets. petrenkod / Getty Images Fennec Foxes and Humans The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria. In some places, its legal to keep fennec foxes as pets. While not truly domesticated, they can be tamed. Like other foxes, they can dig under or climb over most enclosures. Most canine vaccinations are safe for fennecs. Although nocturnal by nature, fennec foxes (like cats) adapt to human schedules. Sources Alderton, David. Foxes, Wolves, and Wild Dogs of the World. London: Blandford, 1998. ISBN 081605715X.Nobleman, Marc Tyler. Foxes. Benchmark Books (NY). pp. 35–36, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7614-2237-2.Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; Mech, Dave. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. World Conservation Union. pp. 208–209, 2004. ISBN 978-2-8317-0786-0.Wacher, T., Bauman, K. Cuzin, F. Vulpes zerda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T41588A46173447. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T41588A46173447.en

Monday, October 21, 2019

Stand Up for Smoke-Free Schools Essays

Stand Up for Smoke-Free Schools Essays Stand Up for Smoke-Free Schools Essay Stand Up for Smoke-Free Schools Essay Everyone knows the amount of danger that smoking poses to the health of both the smokers and the people that surround them. Everyone knows that after a decade or so of smoking, a smoker’s lung would look totally different from a nonsmoker’s lung.   Everyone knows that a smoker is susceptible to various diseases and illness caused by smoking.   This paper will argue for smoke-free schools not for the obvious reasons that smoking causes to a smoker’s health but for the bad effects that smoking also brings to its other victims- the nonsmokers.   This paper will delve into results of some of the studies that shows the terrible consequences that smoking has on people’s- smokers’ and nonsmokers’- health; these will serve as proofs to strengthen the argument for 100% smoke-free schools. While vast amounts of studies had already confirmed the life-threatening effects of smoking to the smoker’s health, an increasing number of researches are also establishing the link between secondhand smoking and various diseases that it brings to nonsmokers.   Secondhand smoke, also known as passive smoking or involuntary smoking, is a term used to define â€Å"a mixture of smoke breathed out by the smoker (mainstream smoke) and smoke released from the lit cigarette (sidestream smoke) (â€Å"Secondhand Smoke Hazards†).   Secondhand smoke contains carcinogenic and toxic substances such as nicotine, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde, which are sometimes in greater concentration than those found in the smoke inhaled by the smoker (â€Å"Secondhand Smoke Hazards†).   It has been linked to various to a variety of cancers, cardiovascular and cerebral diseases, respiratory diseases, as well as reproductive and developmental effects (â €Å"Secondhand Smoke Hazards†).   These findings are supported by an article published by the Medical College of Wisconsin, stating that â€Å"each year, an estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths and 62,000 deaths from coronary heart disease in adult nonsmokers are attributed to secondhand smoke† (â€Å"CDC Releases Data on Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes†). These are just some of the statistics that show how grave the effects of smoking are both to the smoking and nonsmoking public. Many people fall victim to passive smoking consciously and unconsciously.   Studies have established the dangers of secondhand smoking.   This is particularly true especially in the case of children whose lungs are smaller and more delicate than adults’. They are, thus, more seriously affected by the tobacco smoke and its chemicals. According to â€Å"The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke,† a report done by the Surgeon General of the US Department of Health and Human Services, on average, children are exposed to more secondhand smoke than nonsmoking adults.   This is probably because adults are freer to choose whether to be or not to be with smokers, whereas children have to endure the company of their smoking parents or friends. Aside from the obvious health hazards that smoking brings to children, some studies have also shown that smoking and secondhand smoke affect children’s development and behavior. A new study published in the Journal of Adolescent Health, illustrates how secondhand smoke could interfere with academic performance (Collins).   Secondhand smoke was said to lead to hyperactivity, reduced attentions span, as well as reduced language skills and academic achievement. Meanwhile, another research shows how and extended exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of dementia.   According to a study done by the American Academy of neurology, â€Å"people with [] a high lifetime or exposure to secondhand smoke were nearly two and a half times as likely to develop dementia [compared with] those with no secondhand exposure (â€Å"Secondhand Smoke Increases the Risk of Dementia†).   These results boost the increasing amount of data against smoking and secondhand smoke. With all of these evidences pointing to the health and developmental threats that smoking and secondhand smoke bring to children in particular, now is the time to start the end of smoking in pubic areas, including schools and daycare centers.   Dr. Richard Carmona, the surgeon general of the US Department of Health and Human Services, believes that the only way to protect one’s self as well as his/her loved ones is through 100% smoke-free environments (â€Å"The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke†).   The separation of smoking and nonsmoking areas in most public places, which can lessen the exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smoke, prove to be inadequate.   This is because these areas still share the same ventilation systems, which means that the air that the smokers exhale can still find its way into the nonsmokers particularly in small and enclosed quarters. With this in mind, the US Department of Health and Human Services launched Healthy People 2010, â€Å"a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease-prevention agenda designed to help improve the health of all people in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century† (â€Å"The Hazards of Secondhand Smoke†).   This campaign aims to increase people’s awareness of the hazardous effects of smoking as well as to reduce the smoking population in the United States.   It also seeks to encourage the passing of laws among the different states banning smoking in public places such as airports, terminals, hospitals, and schools and universities.   This crusade is met by enthusiasm as shown in a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stating that â€Å"high levels of public support exist, even among smokers, for smoke-free policies in many settings† (â€Å"CDC Releases Data on Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes†). While there are a lot of people and organizations who are in favor of smoke-free environments, there are also some who cannot imagine life without tobacco.   Smokers would say that smoking has also its share of benefits. For one, it causes relaxation and eases tension as well as stress.   Puffing a cigarette can have the same calming effect of a cup of tea or coffee for some.   Those who are pro-smoking bans, on the other hand, would argue that there are other healthier ways of relaxation aside from smoking, such as exercising, yoga, writing, and other artistic activities.   The lifelong harmful effects of smoking are not enough compensation for a moment of relaxation.   Meanwhile, smokers would also assert their right to smoke and to indulge in this kind of vice, saying that smoking is part of their â€Å"needs† as a person. However, other people- whether smokers or nonsmokers- also have the right to breathe clean and fresh air, and this will not be possible as long as there are people who taint the air with their secondhand smoke. Smoke-free environments- particularly daycare centers, schools, and colleges- would prove to be beneficial for everybody not only the children and nonsmokers but even smokers as well.   While it is true that exposure to secondhand smoke is possible anywhere, it wouldn’t hurt to start banning smoking from the place where children spend most of their time: schools.   By starting the good example of not allowing smoking here, the institution is doing the youth a favor of instilling in their minds the benefits of a healthier life without smoke. nbsp;

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Analysis Of Henry David Thoreau s Walden Essays -- United States, H

Thoreau begins his essay with the bold statement, â€Å"That government is best which governs least,† followed shortly by â€Å"That government is best which governs not at all.† Thoreau believed that the government was an unfair presence in the lives of American people. However, although those statements make it sound like he is calling for anarchy, Thoreau quickly revises his position saying, â€Å"I ask for, not at once no government, but at once a better government.† Thoreau states that the government could improve by better serving the interests of the minority, because â€Å"a government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it.† Thoreau’s desire was, then, for a limited, moral government that men would respect. He wasn’t calling for the elimination of the governmentany throughout history shared Thoreau’s opinion, especially those who were on the receiving end of the government’s unjust practices. Thoreau felt that a better government was needed and I would argue, that his words are still relevant today. There is always room for the government to improve. Thoreau wanted a government that didn’t just look to the interests of the powerful majority, one in which individuals with consciences lead, instead of a collective power making decisions for the individuals. The people have the right to resist a government that isn’t serving them properly or is treating them unjustly, or is using their funding for immoral causes; in fact, it is the people’s duty to do so, for only through civil disobedience can the people simulate change. Only through a changed government, a better government, will the American people experience true freedom.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Construction of bridges Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Construction of bridges - Essay Example In 1932, the government commissioned the construction of Sydney Bridge. Interestingly, during the construction of the bridge, engineers used steel made up of 6 million hand driven rivets. Also, the bridge has huge hinges to absorb expansion due to the hot Australia sun. In terms of size, Sydney Bridge boasts as one of the largest bridges in the world measuring 1149 meters in length. Its arch spans 503 meters wide and 134 meters above the sea level.Amazingly, the bridge has eight vehicle lanes, a sizable footway, and a series of train lane. Due to many features, engineers used a great deal of materials to meet the design requirements. For example, contractors utilized around 95000 tons of concrete, 52,800 tons of steel, and 58.8 meters of long hangers. In the modern days, most Australians use the bridge to link them between the city and other northern towns. One of the benefits associated with the bridge include the reduction of long distance travel and transportation via the ferry.Du e to its massive size, the bridge needed a huge workforce to undertake the construction. Hence, the bridge needed the service of specialized personnel such as engineers to design different parts, surveyors to do the access the site, and craftsmen among others. Unfortunately, the size of the bridge posed some health threats to workers. Health specialists did not implement health and safety standards such as the handling of red hot rivets. As a result, fifteen workers lost their lives during the construction process .

Music Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Music Study - Essay Example Recorded on a piano, roll the â€Å"Maple Leaf Rag† was named after a short-lived Sedalia social club and â€Å"he gave the genre its iconic masterpiece. It was also ragtimes biggest hit. The phenomenal success of the Maple Leaf Rag sparked a nationwide ragtime craze.† (Levang) â€Å"Three Dances† by Susato, the Renaissance Flemish composer, instrumentalist and publisher, celebrates dance music. The three pieces include simple but artistic arrangement of dance music. â€Å"Tielman Susato...established himself in Antwerp, c. 1529, as music copyist, flutist, and trumpeter, and later as publisher. In 1543, he produced the Premier Livre des chansons à   quatre parties. . ., including eight chansons by himself.† (Reese, 290) Thus, this paper makes a comparative analysis of the two celebrated musical pieces of different period and category. â€Å"Maple Leaf Rag† (1916) by Joplin has been celebrated as a multi-strain ragtime and it is adorned with athletic bass lines and upbeat melodies. There are four parts in the piece and each of them has a recurring theme striding bass line with abundant seventh chords. The piece, which has a single movement or section, belongs to the genre piano piece with the instrumentation of piano and has a romantic genre piece style. â€Å"The explosive popularity of the Maple Leaf Rag...was founded on fortuitous circumstance... It was in all ways an unlikely combination. And yet it happened... Joplin wasn’t the only composer of ragtime in the 1890s, or even the first one.... But Joplin was the decisive ragtime composer, the one whose musical imagination gave ragtime its finest expression.† (Levang) The music combined march tempos, minstrel-show songs, and the ‘ragged" or syncopated rhythms. The syncopation of the rhythms is especially evident in the transition betwe en the first and second strain and it was impressively original at the time of its composition. The careful construction of the ragtime tune in the piece excels all

Korea Federation of Small & Medium Business Essay

Korea Federation of Small & Medium Business - Essay Example The federation continued to grow and in 1994, the Workface Service Corps for following workers was established. In 1997, small and medium business training centre was established. There was marked growth on the federation in the 1990s which continued in the 2000s. In 2004, the federation establish outlet in Daegu and in 2004, it opened an agency office in Wonju, Gangwon-do which brought to seven the number of agency offices national wide. In 2006, the federation changed its name to Korea federation of small and medium business (Kbiz). This is an outline of a brief history of how the federation has evolved since the 1960s to play it's currently role in the economy and in the business world. During its establishment the federation had set vision which was defined by a set of objectives. Kbiz had the vision of becoming a reliable partner of small and medium enterprises in order to realize dreams and goals in their operation. Therefore it was aimed at standing at the centre of the creation of new opportunity and future value offering the necessary support to the SMEs to help them continue with their innovation, and take them through their challenges. In order to achieve this it had a hope model that outlined what the federal is aim at achieving. As revised during changing of its name, the federation was aimed at offering high service to the clients as give valuable services that will help SMes save time and money, development of a open network of fibers value creation network to be achieved through management which upholds the spirit of entrepreneurial spirit and efforts of the SMEs, and offering excellent effort to the SMEs by linking and connecting different people and different businesses. Activities The federation has been involved in a number of activities which are all aimed at helping the working of the SMEs. The federation is involved in SMEs policy development and research. In this regard, the federation host discussions with experts in order to identify problems that are faced by SMEs and therefore come up with recommended policies that can be adopted by the government and other related authorities and also helping the SMEs to pursue other means of achieving these recommendations. The federation carries out researches and provides all statistics and information as regards the operations of SMEs in the country. The federation also has been able to establish and operate innovative SMEs regulation centre which ensure that there is a favorable environment for formation of companies. In this regard it has been able to identify incentives and other areas of alleviation that are necessary for the operation and formation of these businesses. (Kbiz, 2008) The federation has also been active in organizing and development of the SMEs by supporting a collective initiative. Kbiz has been proving support to help the SMEs to corporate and purse growth together. This has helped tem to advance and increase their financial viability which makes them an attractive investment destination for many investors. Kbiz also support necessary collective activity which is based on the spirit of mutual assistance aimed at enabling such activities like the development of technology, collective brand development, and several other activities which many businesses cannot conduct alone. The federation al

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Diet, Obesity and Physical Activity in children (literature review) Essay

Diet, Obesity and Physical Activity in children (literature review) - Essay Example These two factors of increased total energy intake and reduced physical provide the conditions that are conducive for the genetic defects trigger to act, leading to the rapid increase in obesity rates in children. The rising rate of obesity in children is a cause for health concerns around the world, with particular emphasis on the developed. It is no different in the case of Australia, where more and more children are becoming obese at a rapid rate. Estimates in recent times of the prevalence of obesity in Australia, show that the prevalence of obesity has virtually doubled in virtually a short period of time. This sudden increase in the prevalence has been put down to unhealthy dietary practices and the lack of physical exercise. The health concern with obesity in children is the tendency for obesity to continue into adulthood with all the attendant health risks due to obesity. (1). Obesity in children is reaching epidemic proportions. In about four decades between 1963 and 2004 obesity estimate rates in children show an alarming trend. In the adolescent age group it has more than tripled moving from five percent to seventeen percent, while in the age group of 6 – 11 years it has increased by nearly four times, moving from four percent to nineteen percent and in the age group of 2 – 5 years has almost trebled from five percent to fourteen percent. Current estimates from statistical data suggest that more than 22 million children below the age of five are either overweight or obese worldwide. The more pronounced statistical evidence of the growing epidemic of obesity is its rising rate even among infants in the age group 6 – 23 months, where the rate now is almost twelve percent. (2). Obesity in children was considered to be an aspect of the influence of affluence in the developed world, but such concepts are being proved wrong with the spectre of obesity looming large in

Critically analyse how culture and nonverbal communication are Essay

Critically analyse how culture and nonverbal communication are connected - Essay Example Universally, there is a set of psychological problems that various groups of individuals must solve to survive which highly connect with the biological imperatives. In essence, both groups and individuals must design ways of addressing the universal problems. The means developed by people and groups essentially become their culture. Therefore, culture can be referred to in this context as a shared system of socially transmitted behaviour that defines, describes and guides our ways of life, communicated from one generation to another. Every culture can be said to have its unique language, with its grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics and phonology. The specific way in which every culture develops its non-verbal language differs from that of another. The connection between culture and non-verbal communication is a reality that the essay endeavours to analyse critically. Just like the case with verbal communication, culture significantly influences the various forms of non-verbal communication in profound ways. The application of gestures, facial expressions, the interpersonal space, gaze, touch and body postures impacted on by cultural behaviours that differ significantly. There is a great connection between culture and gestures. The examination of the interrelationship between culture and gestures dates back to the 1936 and 1941 studies by David Efron (Berko, Rosenfeld and Samovar, 2013). In these studies, David examined the use of gestures among the Lithuanian and Sicilian Jewish immigrants who lived in the New York City. In his findings, Efron established that there were different gestures between the traditional Italians and Jews which gradually kept disappearing as people got assimilated into the American culture. Other studies by Ekman et al. in 1976 produced a documentation of the cultural differences in the use of emblematic gestures betwee n the Americans, Japanese, and the New Guineans. It is worth noting,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Korea Federation of Small & Medium Business Essay

Korea Federation of Small & Medium Business - Essay Example The federation continued to grow and in 1994, the Workface Service Corps for following workers was established. In 1997, small and medium business training centre was established. There was marked growth on the federation in the 1990s which continued in the 2000s. In 2004, the federation establish outlet in Daegu and in 2004, it opened an agency office in Wonju, Gangwon-do which brought to seven the number of agency offices national wide. In 2006, the federation changed its name to Korea federation of small and medium business (Kbiz). This is an outline of a brief history of how the federation has evolved since the 1960s to play it's currently role in the economy and in the business world. During its establishment the federation had set vision which was defined by a set of objectives. Kbiz had the vision of becoming a reliable partner of small and medium enterprises in order to realize dreams and goals in their operation. Therefore it was aimed at standing at the centre of the creation of new opportunity and future value offering the necessary support to the SMEs to help them continue with their innovation, and take them through their challenges. In order to achieve this it had a hope model that outlined what the federal is aim at achieving. As revised during changing of its name, the federation was aimed at offering high service to the clients as give valuable services that will help SMes save time and money, development of a open network of fibers value creation network to be achieved through management which upholds the spirit of entrepreneurial spirit and efforts of the SMEs, and offering excellent effort to the SMEs by linking and connecting different people and different businesses. Activities The federation has been involved in a number of activities which are all aimed at helping the working of the SMEs. The federation is involved in SMEs policy development and research. In this regard, the federation host discussions with experts in order to identify problems that are faced by SMEs and therefore come up with recommended policies that can be adopted by the government and other related authorities and also helping the SMEs to pursue other means of achieving these recommendations. The federation carries out researches and provides all statistics and information as regards the operations of SMEs in the country. The federation also has been able to establish and operate innovative SMEs regulation centre which ensure that there is a favorable environment for formation of companies. In this regard it has been able to identify incentives and other areas of alleviation that are necessary for the operation and formation of these businesses. (Kbiz, 2008) The federation has also been active in organizing and development of the SMEs by supporting a collective initiative. Kbiz has been proving support to help the SMEs to corporate and purse growth together. This has helped tem to advance and increase their financial viability which makes them an attractive investment destination for many investors. Kbiz also support necessary collective activity which is based on the spirit of mutual assistance aimed at enabling such activities like the development of technology, collective brand development, and several other activities which many businesses cannot conduct alone. The federation al

Critically analyse how culture and nonverbal communication are Essay

Critically analyse how culture and nonverbal communication are connected - Essay Example Universally, there is a set of psychological problems that various groups of individuals must solve to survive which highly connect with the biological imperatives. In essence, both groups and individuals must design ways of addressing the universal problems. The means developed by people and groups essentially become their culture. Therefore, culture can be referred to in this context as a shared system of socially transmitted behaviour that defines, describes and guides our ways of life, communicated from one generation to another. Every culture can be said to have its unique language, with its grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics and phonology. The specific way in which every culture develops its non-verbal language differs from that of another. The connection between culture and non-verbal communication is a reality that the essay endeavours to analyse critically. Just like the case with verbal communication, culture significantly influences the various forms of non-verbal communication in profound ways. The application of gestures, facial expressions, the interpersonal space, gaze, touch and body postures impacted on by cultural behaviours that differ significantly. There is a great connection between culture and gestures. The examination of the interrelationship between culture and gestures dates back to the 1936 and 1941 studies by David Efron (Berko, Rosenfeld and Samovar, 2013). In these studies, David examined the use of gestures among the Lithuanian and Sicilian Jewish immigrants who lived in the New York City. In his findings, Efron established that there were different gestures between the traditional Italians and Jews which gradually kept disappearing as people got assimilated into the American culture. Other studies by Ekman et al. in 1976 produced a documentation of the cultural differences in the use of emblematic gestures betwee n the Americans, Japanese, and the New Guineans. It is worth noting,

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

What Are the Main Perspectives in the Study of Psychology Essay Example for Free

What Are the Main Perspectives in the Study of Psychology Essay What research methods are used to study these perspectives? Every topic in psychology can be looked at in a number of different ways and various different approaches can be adopted for each topic. These approaches are known as perspectives (i. e. view) that involve certain assumptions (i. e. beliefs) about human behaviour: the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study. There may be several different theories within an approach but they all share the above common assumptions. Different perspectives have different research methods. The â€Å"Gloria Tapes† of 1975 are a good example of how different perspectives are used to address the same problems in a client’s life, as they are looking at her problems from different viewpoints (http://www. metafilter. com, accessed February 2012). For the purpose of this essay, we will be looking at the five main psychological perspectives. These include the psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioural, biological and humanistic perspectives. A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. In its simplest terms, Martin Shuttleworth (2008) defines research as â€Å"In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge† Types of research methods include laboratory and field experiments, case studies, correlations, interviews, observations and questionnaires. These research methods fall into two basic categories: quantitive and qualitive. Qualitative research gathers research that is not in numerical form and is useful for studies at the individual level (i. e. client centred therapy). Quantitive research gathers data in numerical form, which can be put into categories, in order or measured in units of measurement. This type of data can be used to construct graphs and tables of raw data. Experiments typically yield quantitative data (McLeod, S. A. 2007). This essay will now go on to explain the main perspectives in more detail and what different research methods are used for each perspective. The essay will end in a conclusion based on what has been discussed. Sigmund Freud was undoubtedly the main founder of psychodynamics. In 1900 he published his paper â€Å"interpretation of dreams† (Gross, R. 2001 page 15). This marked the beginning of psychoanalytical thought. Other psychiatrists who also helped strongly with the psychodynamic movement include Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Melanie Klein. Freud’s psychoanalysis is the original psychodynamic theory and is based on the belief that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behaviour as adults. He believed that people had little free will to make choices in life (opposite to humanism) and instead, our behaviour is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. Freud explained the human mind like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible (Gross, R. 001 page 15). Most of our thoughts and ideas are not accessible at that moment (pre – conscious) or are totally inaccessible (unconscious). He used techniques such as free association, dream analysis and transference to unlock the subconscious. Most of our subconscious has been made up through repression, whereby threatening, traumatic or unpleasant experiences are â€Å"forgotten† and â€Å"locked away†. This is a major form of â€Å"ego defence†. Repression is closely related to resistance, interpretation of which is another key technique in psychoanalysis. Freud believed that personality is made up of three components: the id, ego and superego. The id and superego (unconscious) are in constant conflict with the ego (conscious), which tries to resolve this discord. If this conflict is not resolved, we use defence mechanisms to reduce our anxiety. Psychoanalysis attempts to help patients resolve their inner conflicts. The id also contains two instincts, eros (life and sex instinct) and thanatos (dream instinct). Thanatos has weaker energies than eros and is therefore channelled away from ourselves and into aggression towards others. One aspect of psychoanalysis is Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, which shows how early experiences affect adult personality. The most important stage is the phallic stage and during this stage boys experience the â€Å"Oedipus† complex and girls experience the â€Å"Electra complex† (Gross, R. 2001 page 15). These complexes result in children identifying with the same sex parent who enables them to learn sex appropriate behaviour and a moral code of conduct for their future life. However like lots of Freud’s work, it has been criticized for over emphasizing the importance of sexuality and under emphasizes the role and influence of social relationships. The types of research methods that are used to study the psychodynamic approach include case studies (i. . Anna O, Little Hans), experiments, hypnosis, slips of the tongue (paraplexes), projective tests (TAT, Rorschach) and dream analysis. Psychodynamic research methods are mostly unscientific and lack empirical support, in terms of analysing human behaviour. For this approach, we are more likely to see qualitative data collection (case studies) which are subjective and also unfalsifiable. The humanist approach believes this approach is too deterministic, leaving little room for personal agency although a great strength of psychodynamics is that it highlights the importance of the subconscious mind and defence mechanisms. Freud too criticizes other perspectives, especially behaviourism, as it doesn’t take into account the unconscious minds influence on behaviour (McLeod, S. A. 2007). Behavioural psychology is concerned with how outside environmental factors (stimuli) affect observable behaviour (response). It focuses on learned behaviour and how these behaviours are learned and reinforced. The underlying assumption is that psychology should be seen as scientific. Around this time Watson, who was the founder of behaviourism, became increasingly critical of introspection and was also starting to experiment on non – human animals. He believed the psychodynamic perspective was difficult to verify and was very subjective, the polar opposite of behaviourism which can be accurately measured. With his famous manifesto of 1913, Watson redefined psychology and launched the behavioural school of psychology (Gross, R. 2001 page 13). He believed people are born with a â€Å"blank slate† and that peoples (and animals) behaviour are controlled and taught from their specific environment, rather than internally (i. e. Freud, Jung). Freud completely rejects tabula rasa and believed people are born with â€Å"instincts†. Behaviourism is purely a â€Å"nurture approach† and how we are nurtured, determines behaviour. The two main processes whereby people (and animals) learn from their environment are namely classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by association. The Russian psychologist, Pavlov (1897) accidentally stumbled upon this condition after originally studying digestion in dogs (McLeod, S. A. 2007). He noticed the dogs salivating whenever he came into the room, even when he wasn’t bringing them food between experiments. He believed dogs didn’t learn to salivate when they saw food. This was â€Å"hardwired† in them as an unconditioned reflex. So why were they salivating when they saw him enter the room? He came to the conclusion the dogs learnt over time to â€Å"associate† him with food. From this knowledge he conducted experiments where he successfully conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of just a bell through the repeated association of the sound of a bell and food. This proved his theory. Operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behaviour. B. F.  Skinner investigated this theory with controlled experiments and showed how rats learnt and changed their behaviour from punishment, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement with his â€Å"Skinner Box† experiments (McLeod, S. A. 2007). This and other human experiments explained some behaviour by a person’s (or animals) motive, therefore proving behaviour occurs for a reason. One other behavioural theory that should be mentioned is social learning theory. Albert Bandura (1977 page 38) states behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning (bobo doll experiment). He believed we learn indirectly, observing behaviours of others then imitating them. For a person to imitate another, the behaviour must be seen as rewarding in some way (reinforced) otherwise this wouldn’t happen. Memory is also involved in some way, and then the behaviour is carried out. Behaviourism is very scientific, using quantitative data. Its laboratory experiments and research with non-human animals is always supported by empirical data, obtained through careful, controlled observation and measurement. These measurements and data are also very accurate. There are limitations to this perspective, with regard to it being too deterministic and its experiments having low ecological value for some. Humanists also believe you cannot compare animals to humans. Behaviourism began to loosen its grip during the 1950’s and during the 1960’s, cognitive psychology started to take hold. Cognitive psychology is introspective and focuses on mental processes such as memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision making. It has been greatly influenced by psychologists such as Piaget, Bandura and Tolman (1948). It’s a very scientific perspective, and revolves around the notion that if we want to know what makes people tick and behave in certain manners, then we need to know what processes are actually going on in their minds. Unlike behaviorism, which focuses only on observable behaviors, cognitive psychology is concerned with internal mental states. It explains behavior in terms of how the mind operates, often comparing it to a computer (Gross, R. 2001 page 21). Such internal processes include perception, memory, language and maladaptive thinking. These processes are viewed as mechanistic. Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. It comes from the Latin word â€Å"perceptio† which means receiving, collecting and action of taking possession with the mind or senses. â€Å"Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present† (Sternberg, 1999). Memory is essential to all our lives. Without a memory of the past, we cannot operate in the present or think about the future. Schemas are memory knowledge packages and can be defined as â€Å"a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations† Piaget, J. (1936). Born in 1896 Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. Piaget called the schema the basic building block of intelligent behaviour – a way of organising knowledge. All of us use schemas in our everyday life as well as stereotyping, which are â€Å"mental short cuts†. Stereotypes are often communicated through words i. e. hairman. Another area of cognitive behaviour is social cognition which is concerned with how people think about each other and different social groups i. e. class, minorities. It is suggested people have psychological problems due to maladaptive thinking and irrational thoughts. C. B. T. challenges these thoughts and behaviours to treat such disorders i. e. Depression or Anxiety. Research methods for cognitive behaviour are mostly in the form of laboratory experiments. Case studies though are sometimes used in situations where individuals are brain damaged. It’s extremely scientific using mainly quantitive data. Skinner criticizes the cognitive approach, as he believes that only external stimulus response behaviour should be studied, as this can be scientifically measured (McLeod, S. A. 2007). One of its strengths though is that this perspective has many empirical studies to support its theories. It’s easily measured which is why it’s included in the medical model and is currently used widely in the NHS. The cognitive approach though, does not always recognize physical factors in determining behaviour. The biological perspective studies such factors. The biological perspective is a way of looking at psychological topics, by studying the physical basis for animal and human behaviour. It is one of the major perspectives in psychology, and involves such things as studying the immune system, nervous system and genetics. This field of psychology is often referred to as biopsychology or physiological psychology. This perspective has grown significantly over the past few decades, especially with advances in our ability to explore and understand the human brain and nervous system. Eysenck (1980) believes peoples personality behaviour can be explained in terms of the kind of nervous system a person inherits and has also produced evidence ( Eysenck 1967) relating to biological differences between introverts and extroverts, believing behaviour can be governed by physiology and genetics (inheritance), (Gross, R. 2001 page 616). MRI scans and PET scans also allow researchers to look at the brain in different ways and can explain behaviours in neurological terms. This can sometimes explain abnormal behaviour in people. Biological psychologists believe that schizophrenia is affected by levels of dopamine (a neurotransmitter), and a brain scan can show up these levels. Autism can also be treated by psychoactive drugs and low carbohydrate diets too (Gross, R. 2001 page 582). Those findings have also helped psychiatry and helped to relieve symptoms of mental illness through drugs. One limitation of this perspective is that Freudians would say the biological approach only treats the surface symptoms and not the underlying causes of the actual problem. This approach is very scientific, using laboratory and natural experiments for physiological studies. Brain function studies include invasive (Autopsy) and non- invasive (CAT scans) methods. Brain damaged individuals are also investigated through case studies. The biological approach has a strong counter argument against the nurture approach (behavioural) but humanists would argue against this perspective as being too deterministic. Two of the most influential theorists in humanistic psychology are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs Model). Carl Ransom Rogers was born in 1902 in Oak Park Illinois and is the founder of â€Å"person centred† or non-directive therapy. It’s a form of talk psychotherapy and the goal of P. C. T is to develop a sense of self wherein the client can realize, how their attitudes, feelings and behaviour are being negatively affected and make an effort to find their true potential (Rogers, R C 1961 page 18). Clients are aided by the therapist to find their own solutions to their problems through self-awareness, finally leading to self-actualisation. In Rogers’s words â€Å"the organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualise, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism (Rogers, R C 1961, 487). He believes we can help ourselves through our own free will and personal agency, to self-actualise to become a fully functioning person once again. Humanistic psychologists empower their clients rather than have â€Å"power† or â€Å"authority over them like psychoanalysts or behaviourists do. They look at human behaviour not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. It’s based on the six core conditions needed for change. As humanists focus on the whole person (holism), they regard scientific measures (i. e. biological) inappropriate for studying behaviour, although their belief in free will is in opposition to the deterministic laws of science. The research uses qualitative data, using methods such as case studies and informal interviews. Qualitative data also gives genuine insight and more holistic information into behaviour. As we can conclude from the discussions on the various perspectives, each one focuses on their own unique conception of why humans behave as they do. Freud’s â€Å"tension reducing person†, Skinners â€Å"environmentally controlled person† and Rogers â€Å"growth motivated person† are all quite different from each other. This diversity of approaches and research methods reflect the complexity of this subject matter. However we’ve also noted some important similarities between different approaches, such as the deterministic nature of Freud’s and Skinners theories and the scientific nature of the behaviourist and biological approaches, which have no consideration for human free will. Each perspective has its own unique strengths and limitations and can even contradict each other’s theories. A scientific approach such as cognitive psychology tends to ignore the subjective (i. e. personal) experiences that people have. The humanistic approach accounts for this but largely at the expense of being non-scientific in its methods and ability to provide evidence. Each perspective though, has something of value to contribute to our understanding of ourselves and human behaviour. Without all these perspectives; our learning and understanding of human behaviour would indeed be more limited and therefore each perspective has its own unique place in psychology.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Evolution of Supply Chain Management

Evolution of Supply Chain Management Over the past 40 years, the traditional purchasing and logistics functions have evolved into a wider strategic approach to materials and distribution management known as SCM. This chapter will review the SCM evolution over the past decades and the factors that have influenced this evolution. 1.2 Supply chain management evolution After Second World War there was a high need to increase production, the most part of the world was suffering from hunger. The world entered in the Productivism era, most manufacturers gave priority to mass production to minimize unit production cost as the primary operations strategy. This was the first stage of the creation of economies of scale. However, these years 1950s and 1960s the concept of supply chain management was unknown. During these years new product development was slow and counted only in firms own technology and capacity. Inventory cushioned bottleneck operations in order to maintain a balanced line low, resulting in huge investment in work in process (WIP) inventory (Tan, 2001). Logistics cost were high as well. At a national level in the USA and UK, they accounted respectively for 15% and 16% of gross national product (Ballou 2007). Furthermore, issues concern with purchasing was neglected by managers at that time, since purchasing was considered as a service to production (Famer, 1997). As mentioned above increasing production was the main objective of this period, little emphasis was on cooperative and strategic buyer supplier partnership. According to Tan (2001), Sharing technology and expertise with customers or suppliers was considered too risky and unacceptable. Tan 2001 argues that, in the 1970s, managers become aware of the huge WIP on manufacturing cost, new product development, quality, and delivery time. One of the factors of this increased awareness was the introduction of Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP). The focus in this period changed; it is not just increase production through spreading the fixed cost to a bigger output (economies of scale), rather, to increase performance. The introduction of IT (MRP) in planning the resources of the firm proofs this. During the 1980s and 1990s, firms deal with increased demands for better, faster, cheaper logistical service. As a result, many manufacturers outsourced logistics activities and their focus transferred to core competencies (Daugherty, 2011). According to Daugherty (2011), the outside specialist presented an economically viable means of achieving productivity and efficiency. Therefore, many manufactures went more for a relationship oriented approach with their supplier and customer. They understood the benefits of cooperative relationship with the other firms in the different chain levels (Stank at al, 1999). Stank at al (1999), show in their paper some of the advantages and benefits that this cooperative relationship had: synergy gain through shared expertise and resources, better planning and support, exchange of information, and joint problem solving. Another reason that influenced the partnership between supplier buyer was the increased global competition (Tan, 2001). In the 1990s was the introduction of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), this gave a boost to the evolution of the SCM and buyer supplier relationship. Movahedi at al (2009) argues, while the previous IT resource planning systems (e.g. EDI Electronic Data Interchange) used by manufactures were concern mainly with inter organizational integration, ERP systems were mainly concern with intra organizational integration. The evolution continues in the 21st century with the development of more sophisticated IT systems (internet base solution systems) which are concerned for both inter-organizational integration and intra-organizational integration. Moreover, the relationship buyer supplier in this period have gone one-step forward, from normal partnership to long-term relationship and strategic alliances. Manufacturers and retailers now commonly exploit supplier strengths and technology in support of new product development, distribution channels, cost reduction etc (Morgan and Moncz ka, 1995). For example retailers like Tesco use supplier strengths and technology to make own label products which contribute to Tesco overall image. The latest trend of evolution in the supply chain management is the movement towards systems of supplier relations over national boundaries and into other continents (Movahedi at al, 2009). Global Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is the latest concept introduced to the literature of SCM. Now days firms are much bigger than they used to be. They have achieved economies of scale and with the establishment of trade liberalisation policies they are internationalising their businesses to find the lowest sources of inputs and growing markets to sell their products. The concept of SCM is not enough for being efficient and competitive in the new environment that is why new concept and management strategies (i.e. GSCM) are emerging. An Integrated supply chain gives considerable competitive advantage to the individual actors participating in the chain. Now days in the developed economies there is a switch from firm firm competition to chain chain competition (Koh at al, 2007). This last sentence describes best how the supply chain management has evolved over the past decade, by making the different actors in a chain to operate as one big entity. 1.3 Evolution stages of supply chain management By looking at the above evolution history, we can identify some turning points in the concept and philosophy of SCM. Some authors have segmented the evolution of supply chain management into stages (Movahedi at al, 2009; Ballou 2007 ). Movahedi at al, (2009) segmented SCM evolution into three stages: Creation era During the 1980s Integration era During 1990s and continued in the 21st Globalisation era Now days Creation era, starts (1980s) when the buyer supplier understand the benefits that a cooperative relationship offers. In this period we encounter for the first time the term supply chain management. Integration era starts (1990s) when the IT system EDI is replaced by ERP. ERP focus not only in managing the resources of the individual firm but also the resources of the integrated supply chain. Globalisation era, starts with the creation of the trade liberalisation policies and the establishment of institution such as World Trade Organization (WTO) and other international institutions that deal with global/regional trade policies. According to Ballou (2007) SCM is not new, it is a evolution of the purchasing and distribution function. The integration of these two functions has generated what we call SCM. Figure 1 shows the evolution of SCM as described by Ballow (2007). He has segmented the evolution of SCM into three stages. Activity fragmentation 1950s and 1960s Activity integration 1960s to 2000 Supply chain management 2000+ As we can see from the figure, in the first stage the activities (from purchasing row materials to finished product in the shelf of a retailer) are fragmented, there is no integration between them. As a result the cost of finished products (transportation cost, inventory cost etc) are high. In the second stage, there is some integration between the activities but still not fully integrated. The SCM 2000+ is the last stage where all the activities are fully integrated leading to cost reduction, shortening of the new product development process, better flow of information, improved cash flow, faster order fulfilment, improved shelf availability and last but not least increased customer satisfaction. From the SCM literature it comes out that customer satisfaction is one of the key driving factors of supply chain evolution. Figure 1 Supply Chain Evolution Source: Ballow (2007) 1.4 Factors that have affected SCM evolution

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Tiny, Smiling Daddy Essay -- Literary Analysis, Gaitskill

Gaitskill’s â€Å"Tiny, Smiling Daddy† focuses on the father and his downward spiral of feeling further disconnected with his family, especially his lesbian daughter, whose article on father-daughter relationships stands as the catalyst for the father’s realization that he’d wronged his daughter and destroyed their relationship. Carver’s â€Å"What We Talk About When We Talk About Love† focuses on Mel and his attempt to define, compare, and contrast romantic love, while leaving him drunk and confused as he was before. While both of my stories explore how afflicted love traumatizes the psyche and seem to agree that love poses the greatest dilemma in life, and at the same time that it’s the most valued prospect of life, the two stories differ in that frustrated familial love causes Gaitskill's protagonist to become understandable and consequently evokes sympathy from the reader, but on the other hand frustrated romantic love does nothin g for Carver's Protagonist, except keep him disconnected from his wife and leaving him unchanged, remaining static as a character and overall unlikable. In comparing â€Å"Tiny, Smiling Daddy† and â€Å"What We Talk About When We Talk About Love†, together they suggest that familial love is more important than romantic love, which we relentlessly strive to achieve often forgetting that we’ll forever feel alone without familial love, arguably the origin of love itself. â€Å"Tiny, Smiling Daddy† opens with â€Å"one of those pure, beautiful dreams in which he was young again, and filled with realization that the friends who had died, or gone away, or decided that they didn’t like him anymore, had really been there all along, loving him† (Gaitskill 305), and through this nostalgic state the father’s reaveled as a character who ha... ...e, because she’s too busy running around on some-† (Gaitskill 317) and these words show us how utterly â€Å"shitty† (Gaitskill 317) he feels, be it warranted or not. He’s faced with the reality that his wife and daughter are ‘leaving’ him behind, doing whatever necessary to detach themselves from his wretched stubbornness and consequently he’s left miserable and alone to mull over the bitter past and even more difficult present. He begins as a likeable character, but gradually becomes a self-righteous and hateful idiot. But, by the end the reader is left feeling extremely sympathetic for him. Though he’s in fact the bad guy, he gets us to view him as the bad guy whose evil is almost justified, or at least that it’s an inevitable symptom of his difficult childhood, poor marriage, extreme anxiety over what others think of him, and disapproval of his daughters lifestyle.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Free Essays - A Raisin in the Sun :: Raisin Sun essays

Racism is a major issue that has affected the United States since its discovery.   Racism is the hatred by a person of one race pointed at a person of another race. The United States has grown up to improve as a whole but this process is a long way away from completion.   Some citizens still believe that African-Americans are inferior to Caucasians and that they should be slaves.   In the 1950s, whites and blacks were segregated to a point that they could not go to the same schools or even use the same bathrooms.   Chief Justice Earl Warren abolished the segregation of schools in May of 1954.   The desegregation of schools has helped people of all races grow up together in a non-hostile environment where they can develop relationships with people of other races.   Throughout the play A Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry criticizes the racial and discriminatory climate of America in the 1950s and early 60s.   It becomes obvious to the reader that the racial tension Hansberry experienced growing up reflected on the way her literature is written.   Moss and Wilson state that, â€Å"Lorraine Hansberry’s South Side childhood, particularly her father’s battle to move into a white neighborhood, provided the background for the events in the play† (314).   Hansberry experienced many of the situations she placed the Younger family at first hand.   Hansberry’s father, Carl Hansberry, was put in a similar circumstance when he moved his family into a predominately white community at the opposition of the white neighbors.   He eventually won a civil rights case on discrimination.   Speaking of the United States, Adler states, â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun is a moving drama about securing one’s dignity within a system that discriminates against, even enslaves, its racial minorities† (824).   Hansberry overcame many racial barriers to become one of the best authors in the world.   Walter Lee Younger is an intense man in his middle thirties who works as a chauffeur, but his dream is to one day open up a liquor store.   Walter has a very bad temper and tends to say things he doesn’t mean. Walter and his wife have been getting into many fights in which he will show off his bad temper.   Many times when Walter gets upset he goes out and gets drunk.   Gerald Weales explains, â€Å"Of the four chief characters in the play, Walter Lee is the most complicated and the most impressive.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Mauryan Empire

SYLLABUS OF FIRST PAPER OF TET Paper II (for classes VI to VIII) Elementary Stage: 30 Questions I. Child Development and Pedagogy 15 Questions a) Child Development (Elementary School Child) †¢ Concept of development and its relationship with learning †¢ Principles of the development of children †¢ Influence of Heredity & Environment †¢ Socialization processes: Social world & children (Teacher, Parents, Peers) †¢ Piaget, Kohlberg and Vygotsky: constructs and critical perspectives †¢ Concepts of child-centered and progressive education †¢ Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence Multi Dimensional Intelligence †¢ Language & Thought †¢ Gender as a social construct; gender roles, gender-bias and educational practice †¢ Individual differences among learners, understanding differences based on diversity of language, caste, gender, community, religion etc. †¢ Distinction between Assessment for learning and assessment of lear ning; SchoolBased Assessment, Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation: perspective and practice †¢ Formulating appropriate questions for assessing readiness levels of learners; for enhancing learning and critical thinking in the classroom and or assessing learner achievement. b) Concept of Inclusive education and understanding children with special needs 5 Questions †¢ Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds including disadvantaged and deprived †¢ Addressing the needs of children with learning difficulties, ‘impairment’ etc †¢ Addressing the Talented, Creative, Specially abled Learners c) Learning and Pedagogy 10 Questions †¢ How children think and learn; how and why children ‘fail’ to achieve success in school performance †¢ Basic processes of teaching and learning; children’s strategies of learning; learning as social activity; social context of learning. †¢ Child as a problem solver and a ‘scientific inv estigator’ Alternative conceptions of learning in children; understanding children’s ‘errors’ as significant steps in the learning process. †¢ Cognition & Emotions †¢ Motivation and learning †¢ Factors contributing to learning personal & environmental II. Language I. 30 Questions a) Language Comprehension 15 Questions Reading unseen passages- two passages one prose or drama and one poem with questions on comprehension, inference, grammar and verbal ability (Prose passage may e literary, scientific, narrative or discursive) b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions †¢ Learning and acquisition †¢ Principles of language Teaching †¢ Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool †¢ Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form; †¢ Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficu lties, errors and disorders †¢ Language Skills †¢ Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom †¢ Remedial Teaching III. Language- II 30 Questions a)Comprehension 15 Questions Two unseen prose passages (discursive or literary or narrative or scientific) with questions on comprehension, grammar and verbal ability b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions †¢ Learning and acquisition †¢ Principles of language Teaching †¢ Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool †¢ Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating deas verbally and in written form; †¢ Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders †¢ Language Skills †¢ Evaluating language comprehension a nd proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing †¢ Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom †¢ Remedial Teaching ____________________________________________________________ _____ SECTION 2 Section-I CHILD DEVELPOMENT AND PEDAGOGY 1. Raja, a student of your class, is very tense due to the acne on his face. What will u do? (1) Ignore him. 2) Tell him that it is normal and is due to hormonal changes. (3) Tell him to go to a doctor as it is a medical problem. (4) Scold and tell him not to waste time on these issues. 2. A student wants to share his personal problems and asks for permission to call on u at your residence. What should be your response? (1) Avoid giving time. (2) Give an appointment readily. (3) Tell him that u do not encourage students to visit at the residence. (4) Ignore the child. 3. If you come to know that a child of your class is facing problems related to parents’ separation at ho me, what would you do? 1) Do not talk to the child on this issue. (2) Treat her/him sympathetically. (3) Talk to the parents. (4) Be indifferent to the child. 4. If you come to know that the father of a student has been tested HIV positive, what will you do? (1) Disclose the information to the class. (2) Make the child sit separately. (3) Ask the parents to withdraw the child. (4) Let him continue with the studies like others. 5. Kavya a student of your class, is visually challenged and you have a function coming up. What will you do? (1) Give her the part of a narrator. 2) Ask her to stay at home during the function. (3) Discourage her from participating. (4) Give her a less important duty. 6. Manjusha is very interested in sports and wants to pursue her career in sports. What will you suggest to her? (1) Girls have no future in sports. (2) She should put in hard work to achieve her ambition. (3) Ask her to be focused only in academics. (4) Girls cannot excel in sports as they are not physically strong. 7. Twelve year old Radhika has begun to imitate the style of talking of her teacher. This form of behavior is known as- (1) compensation (2) transference (3) sublimation (4) egocentrism 8. For conducting a social science class in an interesting way, teachers should- (1) give notes (2) give written homework (3) use role-plays effectively (4) encourage extra reading 9. A 11-12 year old child generally faces more problems related to- (1) eye hand coordination (2) anxiety about studies. (3) need for peer approval (4) understanding mathematics. 10. Which of the following is most essential for learning? (1) Good parent child relationship (2) High intelligence (3) Good school (4) Desire to learn 11. Which of the following is not good for quality learning? (1) Making notes (3) Extra reading (3) Using guide books (4) Self Study 12. Which of the following may damage a low achieving student psychologically? (1) Making children maintain record of the class test marks. (2) Discussing the marks of individual students in the class. (3) Discussing the correct answers in the class. 4) Making children correct their own notebooks. 13. When most of the students in a class do not understand a concept clearly, the teacher should- (1) repeat the lesson once again. (2) conduct hands on activities on that concept. (3) Ask students to take help from parents. (4) ignore and move to the next concept. 14. To correct the stammering problem of a class VIII student, a teacher should (1) ignore the child. (2) provide more opportunities for speaking. (3) c heck the child whenever she/he stammers. (4) seek professional help. 15. Which of the following statements about the role of a teacher is correct? 1) Teacher should be a critic only. (2) Teacher should favour good students. (3) Teacher should have a friendly attitude towards students. (4) Teacher should maintain a distance from students. 16. For ensuring and improving class discipline, the teacher should- (1) arrange regular parent- teacher meetings. (2) Call authorities to the class. (3) be strict with students and punish them. (4) evaluate the methods and approaches used in the class. 17. To address the diversity in academic achievement, an effective teaching method can be – (1) dictating notes (2) cooperative teaching. 3) lecturing (4)giving tests. 18. In which stage of cognitive development is a child, when she/he is able to work out problems logically and can do multiple classification? (1) Pre operational stage (2) Formal operational stage (3) Concrete operation stage ( 4) Sensori-motor stage 19. Gaurav of class VII gave a letter to his classmate Seema saying that he loves her. What should the teacher do? (1) Ignore the issue (2) Punish Gaurav (3) Counsel Gaurav appropriately (4) Let the Principal handle the issue 20. Children from the under privileged sections of the society can benefit more if they are (1) provided with training for self employment (2) exempted from homework and class tests. (3) provided with richer learning environment in school. (4) given simpler learning tasks. 21. Students in classes VII-VIII face problems mostly related to (1) identity crisis. (2) emotional sensitivity. (3) low interest in academic. (4) hyperactivity. 22. The term comprehensive evaluation implies- (1) evaluation conducted at several points of time. (2) evaluation by a group of teachers. (3) Several tests for long hours. 4) evaluation of scholastic and Co-scholastic aspects of pupil growth. 23. Talking to children of classes VI to VIII about â€Å"Growing up† is – (1) not required (2) essential. (3) counterproductive (4) detrimental 24. Which of the following statements about teaching is true? (1) Teaching is a prerequisite of learning. (2) Teaching facilitates learning. (3) Teaching restricts initiative of learners. (4) Teaching is necessary for good learning. 25. Sandhya and Mamta of class VII are bright students but are extremely jealous of each other. How will you, as a teacher, handle them? 1) Not bother as they will outgrow it. (2) Talk to them discreetly about healthy competition. (3) Discuss this with the whole class. (4) Convey your disapproval to them. 26. In a class, a student asks the teacher a question and the answer is not known to the teacher. As a teacher you should- (1) scold the child for asking such questions. (2) ignore the child and continue teaching. (3) tell the child that you will look for the answer. (4) feel ashamed that you did not known the answer. 27. A student who had misbehaved with the teacher in class VI, comes to the same teacher in class VIII. S/He avoids interacting with the teacher due to his/ her behavior. The teacher should (1) ignore the child. (2) remind the child of her/his past behaviour. (3) reassure her/him in a personal discussion. (4) call the parents and report the incidence. 28. Raju, a student of your class, is being teased by his classmates for his dark complexion. What do you need to do as a teacher? (1) Ignore this issue (2) Reprimand the class. (3) Tell Raju not to pay attention. (4) Talk to the class about individual differences. 29. Salim is very good in music but is not able to do well in Mathematics. As a teacher of Mathematics, how will you handle Salim? (1) Tell him that Music does not have a future. (2) Tell him to leave Music and study Maths. (3) Call his parents and talk to them. (4) Tell him that he can do well and explain the concepts to him. 30. While teaching if you realize that what you have taught is not correct, you should- (1) leave the topic unfinished and shift to another. (2) Tell the students that it was a mistake and correct it. (3) divert the attention of the students. (4) Scold students to finish the remaining tasks. Mauryan Empire The  Maurya Empire  was a  geographically extensive  Iron Age  historical power  in  ancient India, ruled by the  Mauryan dynasty  from 321 to 185 BC. Originating from the kingdom of  Magadha  in the  Indo-Gangetic plains  (modern  Bihar, eastern  Uttar Pradesh  and  Bengal) in the eastern side of theIndian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at  Pataliputra  (modern  Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BC by  Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the  Nanda Dynasty  and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western  India  taking advantage of the disruptions of local  powers  in the wake of the withdrawal westward by  Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. By 320 BC the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the  satraps  left by Alexander. With an area of 5,000,000 sq km, it was one of the world's  largest empires  in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent. At its greatest extent, the empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the  Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is nowAssam. To the west, it conquered beyond modern  Pakistan, annexing  Balochistan, south eastern parts of  Iran  and much of what is nowAfghanistan, including the modern  Herat and  Kandahar  provinces. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and  Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near  Kalinga  (modern  Orissa), till it was conquered by  Ashoka. Its decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, and it dissolved in 185 BC with the foundation of the  Sunga Dynasty  in Magadha. Under  Chandragupta, the Mauryan Empire conquered the trans-Indus  region, which was under Macedonian rule. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by  Seleucus I, a Greek general from Alexander's army. Under Chandragupta and his successors, internal and external trade, agriculture and economic activities, all thrived and expanded across India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration, and security. After the  Kalinga War, the Empire experienced half a century of peace and security under Ashoka. Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of  Jainism  increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of  Buddhism  has been said to have been the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India. Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into  Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. The population of the empire has been estimated to be about 50-60 million making the Mauryan Empire one of the most populous empires of the time. Archaeologically, the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of  Northern Black Polished Ware  (NBPW). The  Arthashastra  and theEdicts of Ashoka  are the primary sources of written records of Mauryan times. The  Lion Capital of Asoka  at  Sarnath, has been made the nationalemblem  of India. Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya A symbolic statue of young Chandragupta Maurya, In the courtyard of  Indian Parliament, with the inscription, â€Å"Shepherd boy-Chandragupta Maurya dreaming of India he was to create†. Main articles:  Chanakya  and  Chandragupta Maurya A  Hindu  brahmin  named  Chanakya  (real name Vishnugupta, also known as Kautilya) traveled to  Magadha, a kingdom that was large and militarily powerful and feared by its neighbors, but was dismissed by its king  Dhana Nanda, of the  Nanda Dynasty. Meanwhile, the conquering armies of  Alexander the Great  refused to cross the  Beas Riverand advance further eastward, deterred by the prospect of battling Magadha. Alexander returned to  Babylon  and re-deployed most of his troops west of the  Indus  river. Soon after Alexander died in  Babylon  in  323 BCE, his empire fragmented, and local kings declared their independence, leaving several smaller disunited satraps. Chandragupta Maurya deposed Dhana Nanda. The Greek generals  Eudemus, and  Peithon, ruled until around  316 BCE, when Chandragupta Maurya (with the help of Chanakya, who was now his advisor) utterly defeated the Macedonians and consolidated the region under the control of his new seat of power in Magadha. Chandragupta maurya rise to power is shrouded in mystery and controversy. On the one hand, a number of ancient Indian accounts, such as the drama  Mudrarakshasa(Poem of Rakshasa  Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ‚  Rakshasa  was the prime minister of Magadha) by Visakhadatta, describe his royal ancestry and even link him with the Nanda family. A  kshatriya  tribe known as the  Maurya's are referred to in the earliest Buddhist texts,  Mahaparinibbana Sutta. However, any conclusions are hard to make without further historical evidence. Chandragupta first emerges in Greek accounts as â€Å"Sandrokottos†. As a young man he is said to have met Alexander. He is also said to have met the Nanda king, angered him, and made a narrow escape. Chanakya's original intentions were to train a guerilla army under Chandragupta's command. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, sometimes identified with Porus . Conquest of Magadha Main articles:  Chandragupta Maurya,  Nanda Dynasty, and  Magadha Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the throne of Magadha. Using his intelligence network, Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces, men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana, plus resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of battles. These men included the former general of Taxila, other accomplished students of Chanakya, the representative of King Porus of Kakayee, his son Malayketu, and the rulers of small states. Preparing to invade Pataliputra, Maurya hatched a plan. A battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from the city to a distant battlefield to engage Maurya's forces. Maurya's general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. He also managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom, which culminated in the death of the heir to the throne. Chanakya managed to win over popular sentiment. Ultimately Nanda resigned, handing power to Chandragupta, and went into exile and was never heard of again. Chanakya contacted the prime minister, Rakshasas, and made him understand that his loyalty was to Magadha, not to the Magadha dynasty, insisting that he continue in office. Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect Magadha and destroy the city. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning, and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of Magadha. Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor, and Chanakya assumed the position of an elder statesman. ————————————————- Chandragupta Maurya when  Seleucus I, ruler of the  Seleucid Empire, tried to reconquer the northwestern parts of India, during a campaign in 305 BCE, but failed. The two rulers finally concluded a peace treaty: a marital treaty (Epigamia) was concluded, in which the Greeks offered their Princess for alliance and help from him. Chandragupta snatched the satrapies of  Paropamisade  (Kamboja  and  Gandhara),  Arachosia(Kandhahar) and  Gedrosia  (Balochistan), and  Seleucus I  received 500  war elephants  that were to have a decisive role in his victory against westernHellenistic  kings at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 301 BCE. Diplomatic relations were established and several Greeks, such as the historian  Megasthenes,Deimakos  and  Dionysius  resided at the Mauryan court. Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with a complex administration at Pataliputra, which, according to Megasthenes, was†surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers— (and) rivaled the splendors of contemporaneous  Persian  sites such as  Susaand  Ecbatana. †Ã‚  Chandragupta's son  Bindusara  extended the rule of the Mauryan empire towards southern India. He also had a Greek ambassador at his court, named  Deimachus  (Strabo  1–70). Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta, who live simply, honestly, and do not know writing: † The Indians all live frugally, especially when in camp. They dislike a great undisciplined multitude, and consequently they observe good order. Theft is of very rare occurrence. Megasthenes says that those who were in the camp of Sandrakottos, wherein lay 400,000 men, found that the thefts reported on any one day did not exceed the value of two hundred drachmae, and this among a people who have no written laws, but are ignorant of writing, and must therefore in all the business of life trust to memory. They live, nevertheless, happily enough, being simple in their manners and frugal. They never drink wine except at sacrifices. Their beverage is a liquor composed from rice instead of barley, and their food is principally a rice-pottage. ————————————————- ————————————————- Ahoka the Great Chandragupta's grandson i. e. , Bindusara's son was Ashokavardhan Maurya, also known as Ashoka or Ashoka The Great (ruled 273- 232 BCE). As a young prince, Ashoka was a brilliant commander who crushed revolts in Ujjain and Taxila. As monarch he was ambitious and aggressive, re-asserting the Empire's superiority in southern and western India. But it was his conquest of  Kalinga  which proved to be the pivotal event of his life. Although Ashoka's army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of royal soldiers and civilian units, an estimated 100,000 soldiers and civilians were killed in the furious warfare, including over 10,000 of Ashoka's own men. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war. When he personally witnessed the devastation, Ashoka began feeling remorse, and he cried ‘what have I done? ‘. Although the annexation of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of  Gautama Buddha, and renounced war and violence. For a monarch in ancient times, this was an historic feat. Ashoka implemented principles of  ahimsa  by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labor and servitude). While he maintained a large and powerful army, to keep the peace and maintain authority, Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe, and he sponsored Buddhist missions. He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. Over 40 years of peace, harmony and prosperity made Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs in Indian history. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India. The  Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, are found throughout the Subcontinent. Ranging from as far west as  Afghanistan  and as far south as Andhra (Nellore District), Ashoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments. Although predominantly written in Prakrit, two of them were written in  Greek, and one in both Greek and  Aramaic. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks,  Kambojas, and Gandharas  as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as the Mediterranean. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the  Hellenic  world at the time such as  Amtiyoko  (Antiochus),  Tulamaya  (Ptolemy),  Amtikini  (Antigonos),  Maka  (Magas) and  Alikasudaro  (Alexander) as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism. The Edicts also accurately locate their territory â€Å"600 yojanas away† (a yojanas being about 7 miles), corresponding to the distance between the center of India and Greece (roughly 4,000 miles). [14] ————————————————- Administration Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum. The Empire was divided into four provinces, which one of the four, look like a giant crescents. with the imperial capital at  Pataliputra. From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals are  Tosali  (in the east),  Ujjain  in the west,  Suvarnagiri  (in the south), and  Taxila  (in the north). The head of the provincial administration was the  Kumara  (royal prince), who governed the provinces as king's representative. The  kumara  was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his  Mantriparishad  (Council of Ministers). Historians theorize that the organization of the Empire was in line with the extensive bureaucracy described by  Kautilya  in the  Arthashastra: a sophisticated civil service governed everything from municipal hygiene to international trade. The expansion and defense of the empire was made possible by what appears to have been the largest standing army of its time†¦. According to Megasthenes, the empire wielded a military of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants. A vast  espionage  system collected intelligence for both internal and external security purposes. Having renounced offensive warfare and expansionism, Ashoka nevertheless continued to maintain this large army, to protect the Empire and instill stability and peace across West and South Asia Economy Silver punch mark coin of the  Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE. For the first time in South Asia, political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. The previous situation involving hundreds of kingdoms, many small armies, powerful regional chieftains, and internecine warfare, gave way to a disciplined central authority. Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the  Arthashastra. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants, farmers and traders. The Mauryan army wiped out many gangs of bandits, regional private armies, and powerful chieftains who sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. Although regimental in revenue collection, Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace. Mauryan cast copper coin. Late 3rd century BCE. British Museum. Under the Indo-Greek friendship treaty, and during Ashoka's reign, an international network of trade expanded. The  Khyber Pass, on the modern boundary ofPakistan  and  Afghanistan, became a strategically important port of trade and intercourse with the outside world. Greek states and Hellenic kingdoms in West Asia became important trade partners of India. Trade also extended through the  Malay peninsula  into Southeast Asia. India's exports included silk goods and textiles, spices and exotic foods. The Empire was enriched further with an exchange of scientific knowledge and technology with Europe and West Asia. Ashoka also sponsored the construction of thousands of roads, waterways, canals, hospitals, rest-houses and other public works. The easing of many over-rigorous administrative practices, including those regarding taxation and crop collection, helped increase productivity and economic activity across the Empire. In many ways, the economic situation in the Mauryan Empire is analogous to the Roman Empire of several centuries later. Both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to  corporations. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects, Mauryan India had numerous private commercial entities. These existed purely for private commerce and developed before the Mauryan Empire itself. The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India. University of Michigan. ————————————————- ————————————————- Religion Balarama, holding mace and conch (lower right) on a Maurya coin. Balarama was originally a powerful independent deity of Hinduism, and was considered an avatar of  Vishnu. 3rd–2nd century CE. British Museum. Buddhist  stupas  during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. Butkara stupa, 3rd century BCE. Buddhist  proselytism  at the time of kingAshoka  (260–218 BCE). Mauryan architecture in the  Barabar Mounts. Grottoe of Lomas Richi. 3rd century BCE. Hinduism Hinduism  was the only religion at the time of inception of the empire, Hindu priests and ministers use to be an important part of the emperor's court, like  Chanakya  also known as  Vishnu Gupt. Ajivikas, an  ascetic  Hindu movement was also practiced, Bhattotpala, in 950 A. D. identified them with the â€Å"Ekandandins† writes that they are devotees of Narayana (Vishnu), although Shilanka speaking of the Ekandandins in another connection identifies them as Shaivas (devotees of  Shiva). Scholar James Hastings identifies the name â€Å"Mankhaliputta† or â€Å"Mankhali† with the  bamboo staff. Scholar Jitendra N. Banerjea compares them to the  Pasupatas  Shaivas. It is believed by scholar Charpentier that the Ajivikas before Makkhali Goshala worshiped Shiva. Chanakya wrote in his text  Chanakya Niti, â€Å"Humbly bowing down before the almighty Lord Sri Vishnu, the Lord of the three worlds, I recite maxims of the science of political ethics (niti) selected from the various satras (scriptures)† Even after embracing Buddhism, Ashoka retained the membership of Hindu Brahmana priests and ministers in his court. Mauryan society began embracing the philosophy of  ahimsa, and given the increased prosperity and improved law enforcement, crime and internal conflicts reduced dramatically. Also greatly discouraged was the  caste system  and orthodox discrimination, as Mauryans began to absorb the ideals and values of Jain and Buddhist teachings along with traditional  Vedic Hindu  teachings. Buddhism Ashoka initially practiced Hinduism but later embraced  Buddhism, following the  Kalinga War, he renounced expansionism and aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the  Arthashastra  on the use of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son  Mahinda  and daughter  Sanghamitta  to  Sri Lanka, whose king  Tissa  was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions o  West Asia,  Greece  and  South East Asia, and commissioned the construction of monasteries, schools and publication of Buddhist literature across the empire. He is believed to have built as many as 84,000 stupas across India i. e. Sanchi  and  Mahabodhi Temple, and he increased the popularity of Buddhism in  Afghanistan,  Thailand  and  North Asia  including  Siberia. Ashoka helped convene the  Third Buddhist Council  of India and South Asia's Buddhist orders, near his capital, a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of the Buddhist religion. Jainism Emperor Chandragupta Maurya embraced  Jainism  after retiring. At an older age, Chandragupta renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of  Acharya Bhadrabahu. It is said that in his last days, he observed the rigorous but self purifying  Jain  ritual of  santhara  i. e. fast unto death, at  Shravana Belagola  in  Karnataka. However, his successor, Emperor Bindusara, was a follower of a Hindu ascetic movement,  Ajivika  and distanced himself from Jain and Buddhist movements. Samprati, the grandson of  Ashoka  also embraced  Jainism. Samrat Samprati was influenced by the teachings of Jain monk  Arya Suhasti Suri  and he is known to have built 125,000  Jain Temples  across India. Some of them are still found in towns of Ahmedabad, Viramgam, Ujjain & Palitana. It is also said that just like Ashoka, Samprati sent messengers & preachers to Greece, Persia & middle-east for the spread of Jainism. But to date no research has been done in this area. Thus, Jainism became a vital force under the Mauryan Rule. Chandragupta  &  Samprati  are credited for the spread of  Jainism  in  Southern India. Lakhs of  Jain Temples  &  Jain Stupas  were erected during their reign. But due to lack of royal patronage & its strict principles, along with the rise of  Shankaracharya  &  Ramanujacharya,  Jainism, once the major religion of southern India, began to decline. Architectural remains Architectural remains of the Maurya period are rather few. Remains of a  hypostyle  building with about 80 columns of a height of about 10 meters have been found in  Kumhrar, 5  km from  Patna  Railway station, and is one of the very few sites that has been connected to the rule of the Mauryas. The style is rather reminiscent of Persian Achaemenid architecture. The grottoes of  Barabar Caves, are another example of Mauryan architecture, especially the decorated front of the Lomas Rishi grotto. These were offered by the Mauryas to the Buddhist sect of the  Ajivikas. The most widespread example of Maurya architecture are the  Pillars of Ashoka, often exquisitely decorated, with more than 40 spread throughout the sub-continent. ————————————————- ————————————————- Natural history in the times of the Mauryas The protection of animals in India became serious business by the time of the Maurya dynasty; being the first empire to provide a unified political entity in India, the attitude of the Mauryas towards forests, its denizens and fauna in general is of interest. The Mauryas firstly looked at forests as a resource. For them, the most important forest product was the elephant. Military might in those times depended not only upon horses and men but also battle-elephants; these played a role in the defeat of  Seleucus,  Alexander's governor of the Punjab[. The Mauryas sought to preserve supplies of elephants since it was cheaper and took less time to catch, tame and train wild elephants than to raise them. Kautilya'sArthashastra  contains not only maxims on ancient statecraft, but also unambiguously specifies the responsibilities of officials such as the  Protector of the Elephant Forests: On the border of the forest, he should establish a forest for elephants guarded by foresters. The Office of the Chief Elephant Forrester should with the help of guards protect the elephants in any terrain. The slaying of an elephant is punishable by death.. —Arthashastra The Mauryas also designated separate forests to protect supplies of timber, as well as lions and tigers, for skins. Elsewhere the  Protector of Animals  also worked to eliminate thieves, tigers and other predators to render the woods safe for grazing cattle. The Mauryas valued certain forest tracts in strategic or economic terms and instituted curbs and control measures over them. They regarded all forest tribes with distrust and controlled them with bribery and political subjugation. They employed some of them, the food-gatherers or  aranyaca  to guard borders and trap animals. The sometimes tense and conflict-ridden relationship nevertheless enabled the Mauryas to guard their vast empire When  Ashoka  embraced  Buddhism  in the latter part of his reign, he brought about significant changes in his style of governance, which included providing protection to fauna, and even relinquished the royal hunt. He was the first ruler in history to advocate conservation measures for wildlife and even had rules inscribed in stone edicts. The edicts proclaim that many followed the king's example in giving up the slaughter of animals; one of them proudly states: Our king killed very few animals. —Edict on Fifth Pillar However, the edicts of Ashoka reflect more the desire of rulers than actual events; the mention of a 100 ‘panas' (coins) fine for poaching deer in royal hunting preserves shows that rule-breakers did exist. The legal restrictions conflicted with the practices freely exercised by the common people in hunting, felling, fishing and setting fires in forests. 24] Foundation of the Empire Relations with the Hellenistic world may have started from the very beginning of the Maurya Empire. Plutarch  reports that Chandragupta Maurya met withAlexander the Great, probably around  Taxila  in the northwest: â€Å"Sandrocottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since it s king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth†. Reconquest of the Northwest (c. 310 BCE) Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India, in the territories formerly ruled by the Greeks, where he fought the satraps (described as â€Å"Prefects† in Western sources) left in place after Alexander (Justin), among whom may have been  Eudemus, ruler in the western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE orPeithon, son of Agenor, ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for  Babylon  in 316 BCE. India, after the death of Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination† Justin XV. 4. 2–13[ â€Å"Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he bec ame a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory. † Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE) Silver coin ofSeleucus I Nicator, who fought Chandragupta Maurya, and later made an alliance with him. Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian  satrap  of the  Asian  portion of Alexander's former empire, conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta: â€Å"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, ‘Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus†. Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55[28] Though no accounts of the conflict remain, it is clear that Seleucus fared poorly against the Indian Emperor as he failed in conquering any territory, and in fact, was forced to surrender much that was already his. Regardless, Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement and through a treaty sealed in 305 BCE, Seleucus, according to Strabo, ceded a number of territories to Chandragupta, including southern  Afghanistan  and parts of  Persia. Accordingly, Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants, a military asset which would play a decisive role at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 301 BCE. Marital alliance It is generally thought that Chandragupta married  Seleucus's  daughter, or a Greek  Macedonian  princess, a gift from Seleucus to formalize an alliance. In a return gesture, Chandragupta sent 500  war-elephants,  a military asset which would play a decisive role at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 302 BC. In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador,  Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later  Deimakos  to his son  Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at  Pataliputra  (modern  Patna  in  Bihar state). Later  Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of  Ptolemaic Egypt  and contemporary of  Ashoka the Great, is also recorded by  Pliny the Elder  as having sent an ambassador named  Dionysius  to the Mauryan court. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory west of the Indus, including the  Hindu Kush, modern day  Afghanistan, and the  Balochistan  province of  Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the  Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as  Kandhahar  in southern Afghanistan. The treaty on â€Å"Epigamia† implies lawful marriage between Greeks and Indians was recognized at the State level, although it is unclear whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people, or both . Exchange of ambassadors Seleucus dispatched an ambassador,  Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later  Deimakos  to his son  Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at  Pataliputra  (Modern  Patna  in  Bihar state). Later  Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of  Ptolemaic Egypt  and contemporary of Ashoka, is also recorded by  Pliny the Elder  as having sent an ambassador named  Dionysius  to the  Mauryan  court. Exchange of presents Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various  aphrodisiacs  to Seleucus: â€Å"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love†Athenaeus of Naucratis. His son  Bindusara  Ã¢â‚¬ËœAmitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded in Classical sources as having exchanged present with  Antiochus I: â€Å"But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really, as  Aristophanes  says, â€Å"There's really nothing nicer than dried figs†), that even Amitrochates, the king of the Indians, wrote toAntiochus, entreating him (it is  Hegesander  who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine, and some dried figs, and a  sophist; and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer, â€Å"The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you; but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece†Ã‚  Athenaeus, â€Å"Deipnosophistae† XIV. 67 Greek population in India Greek population apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule. In his  Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, Ashoka describes that Greek population within his realm converted to Buddhism: â€Å"Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the  Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the  Andhras  and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in  Dharma†. Rock Edict Nb13  (S. Dhammika). Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek, and a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in  Kandahar. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict, Ashoka uses the word  Eusebeia  (â€Å"Piety†) as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous â€Å"Dharma† of his other Edicts written in  Prakrit: â€Å"Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily†. Buddhist missions to the West (c. 250 BCE) Front view of the single lion capital inVaishali. Also, in the  Edicts of Ashoka, Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a recipient of his  Buddhist  proselytism, although no Western historical record of this event remain: â€Å"The conquest by  Dharma  has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred  yojanas  (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king  Antiochosrules, beyond there where the four kings named  Ptolemy,  Antigonos,  Magas  and  Alexander  rule, likewise in the south among the  Cholas, the  Pandyas, and as far as  Tamraparni  (Sri Lanka). † (Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika). Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of  herbal medicine, for men and animals, in their territories: â€Å"Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the  Cholas, the  Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as  Tamraparni  and where the Greek king  Antiochos  rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals†. nd Rock Edict The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhis m, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka, such as  Dharmaraksita, are described in  Pali  sources as leading Greek (â€Å"Yona†) Buddhist monks, active in Buddhist proselytism (the  Mahavamsa, Subhagsena and Antiochos III (206 BCE) Sophagasenus  was an Indian  Mauryan  ruler of the 3rd century BCE, described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in  Prakrit. His name is mentioned in the list of Mauryan princes, and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty, as a descendant of Pradyumna. He may have been a grandson of  Ashoka, or  Kunala, the son of Ashoka. He ruled an area south of the  Hindu Kush, possibly in  Gandhara. Antiochos III, the  Seleucid  king, after having made peace with  Euthydemus  in  Bactria, went to India in 206 BC nd is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there: â€Å"He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India; renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of t he Indians; received more elephants, until he had a hundred and fifty altogether; and having once more provisioned his troops, set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him†. Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings. Brhadrata, the last ruler of the  Mauryan dynasty, held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor  Ashoka, although he still upheld the Buddhist faith. Sunga coup (185 BCE) Brihadrata  was assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade, by the commander-in-chief of his guard, the  Brahmin  general  Pusyamitra Sunga, who then took over the throne and established theSunga dynasty. Buddhist records such as the  Asokavadana  write that the assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for  Buddhists,  and a resurgence of  Hinduism. According to  Sir John Marshall,  Pusyamitra may have been the main author of the persecutions, although later Sunga kings seem to have been more supportive of Buddhism. Other historians, such as  Etienne Lamotte and  Romila Thapar, among others, have argued that archaeological evidence in favor of the allegations of persecution of Buddhists are lacking, and that the extent and magnitude of the atrocities have been exaggerated. Establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE) The fall of the Mauryas left the  Khyber Pass  unguarded, and a wave of foreign invasion followed. The  Greco-Bactrian  king,  Demetrius, capitalized on the break-up, and he conquered southern Afghanistan and Pakistan around 180 BC, forming the  Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus region, and make forays into central India, for about a century. Under them, Buddhism flourished, and one of their kings  Menander  became a famous figure of Buddhism, he was to establish a new capital of Sagala, the modern city of  Sialkot. However, the extent of their domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate. Numismatic evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ. Although the extent of their successes against indigenous powers such as the  Sungas,  Satavahanas, and  Kalingas  are unclear, what is clear is that Scythian tribes, renamed  Indo-Scythians, brought about the demise of the Indo-Greeks from around 70 BCE and retained lands in the trans-Indus, the region of  Mathura, and Gujarat. Reasons The decline of the Maurya Dynasty was rather rapid after the death of Ashoka/Asoka. One obvious reason for it was the succession of weak kings. Another immediate cause was the partition of the Empire into two. Had not the partition taken place, the Greek invasions could have been held back giving a chance to the Mauryas to re-establish some degree of their previous power. Regarding the decline much has been written. Haraprasad Sastri contends that the revolt by Pushyamitra was the result of brahminical reaction against the pro-Buddhist policies of Ashoka and pro-Jaina policies of his successors. Basing themselves on this thesis, some maintain the view that brahminical reaction was responsible for the decline because of the following reasons. 1. Prohibition of the slaughter of animals displeased the Brahmins as animal sacrifices were esteemed by them. 2. The book Divyavadana refers to the persecution of Buddhists by Pushyamitra Sunga. 3. Asoka's claim that he exposed the Budheveas (brahmins) as false gods shows that Ashoka was not well disposed towards Brahmins. 4. The capture of power by Pushyamitra Sunga shows the triumph of Brahmins 5. All of these four points can be easily refuted. 6. Asoka's compassion towards animals was not an overnight decision. Repulsion of animal sacrifices grew over a long period of time. Even Brahmins gave it up. 7. The book Divyavadana cannot be relied upon since it was during the time of Pushyamitra Sunga that the Sanchi and Barhut stupas were completed. The impression of the persecution of Buddhism was probably created by Menander's invasion, since he was a Buddhist. 8. The word ‘budheva' is misinterpreted because this word is to be taken in the context of some other phrase. Viewed like this, the word has nothing to do with brahminism. 9. The victory of Pushyamitra Sunga clearly shows that the last of the Mauryas was an incompetent ruler since he was overthrown in the very presence of his army, and this had nothing to do with brahminical reaction against Asoka's patronage of Buddhism. Moreover, the very fact that a Brahmin was the commander in chief of the Mauryan ruler proves that the Mauryas and the Brahmins were on good terms. After all, the distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism in India was purely sectarian and never more than the difference between saivism and vaishnavism. The exclusiveness of religious doctrines is a Semitic conception, which was unknown to India for a long time. Buddha himself was looked upon in his lifetime and afterwards as a Hindu saint and avatar and his followers were but another sect in the great Aryan tradition. Ashoka was a Buddhist in the same way as Harsha was a Budhist, or Kumarapala was a Jain. But in the view of the people of the day he was a Hindu monarch following one of the recognized sects. His own inscriptions bear ample withness to the fact. While his doctrines follow the middle path, his gifts are to the brahmibns, sramansa (Buddhist priests) and others equally. His own name of adoption is Devanam Priya, the beloved of the gods. Which gods? Surely the gods of the Aryan religion. Buddhism had no gods of its own. The idea that Ashoka was a kind of Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was a kind or Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was essentially a Hindu, as indeed was the founder of the sect to which he belonged. Raychaudhury too rebuts the arguments of Sastri. The empire had shrunk considerably and there was no revolution. Killing the Mauryan King while he was reviewing the army points to a palace coup detat not a revolution. The organization were ready to accept any one who could promise a more efficient organization. Also if Pushyamitra was really a representative of brahminical reaction he neighbouting kings would have definitely given him assistance. The argument that the empire became effete because of Asokan policies is also very thin. All the evidence suggests that Asoka was a stern monarch although his reign witnessed only a single campaign. He was shrewd enough in retaining Kalinga although he expressed his remorse. Well he was wordly-wise to enslave and-and-half lakh sudras of Kalinga and bring them to the Magadha region to cut forests and cultivate land. More than this his tours of the empire were not only meant for the sake of piety but also for keeping an eye on the centrifugal tendencies of the empire. Which addressing the tribal people Asoka expressed his willingness to for given. More draconian was Ashoka's message to the forest tribes who were warned of the power which he possessed. This view of Raychoudhury on the pacifism of the State cannot be substantiated. Apart from these two major writers there is a third view as expressed by kosambi. He based his arguments that unnecessary measures were taken up to increase tax and the punch-marked coins of the period show evidence of debasement. This contention too cannot be up held. It is quite possible that debased coins began to circulate during the period of the later Mauryas. On the other hand the debasement may also indicate that there was an increased demand for silver in relation to goods leading to the silver content of the coins being reduced. More important point is the fact that the material remains of the post-Asokan era do not suggest any pressure on the economy. Instead the economy prospered as shown by archaeological evidence at Hastinapura and Sisupalqarh. The reign of Asoka was an asset to the economy. The unification of the country under single efficient administration the organization and increase in communications meant the development of trade as well as an opening of many new commercial interest. In the post – Asokan period surplus wealth was used by the rising commercial classes to decorate religious buildings. The sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi and the Deccan caves was the contribution of this new bourgeoisie. Still another view regarding of the decline of Mauryas was that the coup of Pushyamitra was a peoples' revolt against Mauryans oppression and a rejection of the Maurya adoption of foreign ideas, as far interest in Mauryan Art. This argument is based on the view that Sunga art (Sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi) is more earthy and in the folk tradition that Maruyan art. This is more stretching the argument too far. The character of Sunga art changed because it served a different purpose and its donors belonged to different social classes. Also, Sunga art conformed more to the folk traditions because Buddhism itself had incorporated large elements of popular cults and because the donors of this art, many of whom may have been artisans, were culturally more in the mainstream of folk tradition. One more reasoning to support the popular revolt theory is based on Asoka's ban on the samajas. Asoka did ban festive meetings and discouraged eating of meat. These too might have entagonised the population but it is doubtful whether these prohibitions were strictly enforced. The above argument (people's revolt) also means that Asoka's policy was continued by his successors also, an assumption not confirmed by historical data. Further more, it is unlikely that there was sufficient national consciousness among the varied people of the Mauryan empire. It is also argued by these theorists that Asokan policy in all its details was continued by the later Mauryas, which is not a historical fact. Still another argument that is advanced in favour of the idea of revolt against the Mauryas is that the land tax under the Mauryas was one-quarter, which was very burden some to the cultivator. But historical evidence shows something else. The land tax varied from region to region according to the fertility of the soil and the availability of water. The figure of one quarter stated by Magasthenes probably referred only to the fertile and well-watered regions around Pataliputra. Thus the decline of the Mauryan empire cannot be satisfactorily explained by referring to Military inactivity, Brahmin resentment, popular uprising or economic pressure. The causes of the decline were more fundamental. The organization of administration and the concept of the State were such that they could be sustained by only by kings of considerably personal ability. After the death of Asoka there was definitely a weakening at the center particularly after the division of the empire, which inevitably led to the breaking of provinces from the Mauryan rule. Also, it should be borne in mind that all the officials owed their loyalty to the king and not to the State. This meant that a change of king could result in change of officials leading to the demoralization of the officers. Mauryas had no system of ensuring the continuation of well-planned bureaucracy. The next important weakness of the Mauryan Empire was its extreme centralization and the virtual monopoly of all powers by the king. There was a total absence of any advisory institution representing public opinion. That is why the Mauryas depended greatly on the espionage system. Added to this lack of representative institutions there was no distinction between the executive and the judiciary of the government. An incapable king may use the officers either for purposes of oppression or fail to use it for good purpose. And as the successors of Asoka happened to be weak, the empire inevitably declined. Added to these two factors, there is no conception of national unity of political consciousness. It is clear from the fact that even the resistance against the greeks as the hated miecchas was not an organized one. The only resistance was that of the local rulers who were afraid of losing their newly acquired territory. It is significant that when Porus was fighting Alexander, or when Subhagasena was paying tribute to Antiochus, they were doing so as isolated rulers in the northwest of India. They had no support from Pataliputra, nor are they even mentioned in any Indian sources as offering resistance to the hated Yavanas. Even the heroic Porus, who, enemy though he was, won the admiration of the Greeks, is left unrecorded in Indian sources. Another associated point of great importance is the fact that the Mauryan Empire which was highly centralized and autocratic was the first and last one of its kind. If the Mauryan Empire did not survive for long, it could be because of the failure of the successors of Asoka to hold on to the principles that could make success of such an empire. Further, the Mauryan empire and the philosophy of the empire was not in tune with the spirit of the time because Aryanism and brahminism was very much there. According to the Brahmin or Aryan philosophy, the king was only an upholder of dharma, but never the crucial or architecture factor influencing the whole of life. In other words, the sentiment of the people towards the political factor, that is the State was never established in India. Such being the reality, when the successors of Asoka failed to make use of the institution and the thinking that was needed to make a success of a centralized political authority. The Mauryan Empire declined without anyone's regret. Other factors of importance that contributed to the decline and lack of national unity were the ownership of land and inequality of economic levels. Land could frequently change hands. Fertility wise the region of the Ganges was more prosperous than northern Deccan. Mauryan administration was not fully tuned to meet the existing disparities in economic activity. Had the southern region been more developed, the empire could have witnessed economic homogeneity. Also the people of the sub-continent were not of uniform cultural level. The sophisticated cities and the trade centers were a great contrast to the isolated village communities. All these differences naturally led to the economic and political structures being different from region to region. It is also a fact that even the languages spoken were varied. The history of a